California Domestic Partnerships and Same-Sex Marriage

Chapter Outlines

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

1

Adoption and Recognition of Domestic Partnership and Same-Sex Marriage in California

David L. Gamblin

          I.    INTRODUCTION   §1.1

       II.   ADOPTION OF DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP IN CALIFORNIA

           A.   Local Registration of Domestic Partnerships   §1.2

           B.   Statewide Registration of Domestic Partnerships

                1.   Legislation Before AB 205   §1.3

                2.   Passage of AB 205 and Later Enabling Legislation   §1.4

                3.   Operative Date of AB 205   §1.5

                4.   Ability of Previously Registered Domestic Partners to Opt Out of Current Law   §1.6

                5.   Effect of State Registration on Local Programs   §1.7

      III.   ADOPTION OF SAME-SEX MARRIAGE IN CALIFORNIA

           A.   Preexisting Law on Same-Sex Marriage

                1.   California Law

                    a.   Marriage Defined in Gender-Based Terms   §1.8

                    b.   Proposition 22’s Further Limits on Marriage; Nullification of San Francisco Marriages   §1.9

                2.   Federal Law   §1.10

           B.   California Court Holds Statutes Precluding Same-Sex Marriage Unconstitutional; Proposition 8 Follows

                1.   In re Marriage Cases Ushers In Same-Sex Marriage for Short Time Period   §1.11

                2.   Proposition 8 Amended California Constitution to Preclude Same-Sex Marriage

                    a.   Text and Effective Date of Proposition 8   §1.12

                    b.   Legal Effect of Proposition 8 and the Strauss Case

                         (1)  Proposition 8 Applied Only Prospectively, Leaving Earlier Marriages Intact   §1.13

                         (2)  Special Issues for Couples Married Before Proposition 8 Took Effect

                              (a)   Effect of Earlier Out-of-State Marriage   §1.14

                              (b)   Potential Need for New or Amended Agreements; Changes to Other Documents   §1.15

                3.   Federal Challenge to Proposition 8 Succeeds   §1.16

      IV.   CALIFORNIA RECOGNITION OF FOREIGN DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIPS AND SAME-SEX MARRIAGES

           A.   Sister-State and Other Foreign Domestic Partnerships   §1.17

           B.   Sister-State and Other Foreign Same-Sex Marriages   §1.18

       V.   SISTER-STATE AND FEDERAL RECOGNITION OF CALIFORNIA DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIPS AND SAME-SEX MARRIAGE

           A.   Full Faith and Credit Issues   §1.19

           B.   Federal Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)   §1.20

           C.   Federal Definition of Marriage   §1.21

           D.   No Required Federal Full Faith and Credit for Same-Sex Couples   §1.22

               E.   Effect of State DOMAs   §1.23

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2

Choice of Marriage, Registered Domestic Partnership, or Informal Cohabitation

Roberta B. Bennett
Jeffrey W. Erdman

          I.    CHOOSING MARRIAGE OR REGISTERED DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP

           A.   Choosing Marriage   §2.1

           B.   Choosing Registered Domestic Partnership

                1.   Benefits of Registered Domestic Partnership   §2.2

                2.   Adoption   §2.3

                3.   Hospital Visitation   §2.4

                4.   Medical Decision Making   §2.5

                5.   Legal and Financial Decision Making   §2.6

                6.   State Disability Benefits   §2.7

                7.   Recovery for Wrongful Death   §2.8

                8.   Estate Planning, Intestate Succession, and Related Issues

                    a.   Estate Planning   §2.9

                    b.   Intestate Succession   §2.10

                     c.   Disposition of Partner’s Remains   §2.11

                    d.   County Employee Death Benefits   §2.12

                9.   Unemployment Benefits   §2.13

              10.   Sick Leave   §2.14

              11.   Domestic Partner Health Insurance   §2.15

              12.   Access to Records   §2.16

              13.   Financial Support, Community Property, and Related Rights   §2.17

              14.   Parentage Presumptions   §2.18

              15.   Right to Act on Partner’s Behalf   §2.19

              16.   “Marital” Privileges in Legal Proceedings   §2.20

              17.   Fiduciary Duties of Partners   §2.21

              18.   Leave Related to Birth or Adoption of Children   §2.22

              19.   Right to Transfer Property Without Reassessment   §2.23

              20.   Obligations and Other Issues in Choosing Registered Domestic Partnership   §2.24

                    a.   Joint Obligation for Debts   §2.25

                    b.   Support Obligation Between Partners   §2.26

                     c.   Need for Judicial Termination of Partnership   §2.27

                    d.   Exclusion of Rights Granted to Married Couples

                         (1)  Rights Conferred by State Initiative   §2.28

                         (2)  Federal Rights

                              (a)   Limitations Imposed by Federal Law   §2.29

                              (b)   Special Rule on Reporting Community Income on Federal Tax Returns   §2.30

                               (c)   Immigration Concerns   §2.31

                         (3)  Public Record Aspect of Registration Unless Confidential Form Used   §2.32

                         (4)  Consideration of Joint Incomes for Means-Based Benefits   §2.33

                         (5)  Need to File State Tax Return Either Jointly or Equivalent of “Married Filing Separately”   §2.34

       II.   CHOOSING INFORMAL (UNREGISTERED) COHABITATION

           A.   Introduction   §2.35

           B.   Use of Marvin Nonmarital Cohabitation Agreements

                1.   Right to Use Cohabitation Agreement   §2.36

                2.   Third Party Recognition Issues   §2.37

           C.   Use of Estate Planning, Insurance, and Other Tools Not Requiring Domestic Partner Registration or Marriage

                1.   Estate Plans, Insurance, and Other Wealth Transfer Tools   §2.38

                2.   Powers of Attorney for Health Care and Physician Directives   §2.39

                3.   Powers of Attorney for Financial Affairs   §2.40

           D.   Right to Use “Second Parent” and Other Adoption Procedures   §2.41

               E.   Cost Considerations in Planning for Unregistered Cohabitation   §2.42

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3

Ethical and Practice Issues in Representing Domestic Partners and Same-Sex Spouses

Frederick C. Hertz

          I.   SCOPE OF REPRESENTATION

           A.   Introduction   §3.1

           B.   Decision to Register as California Domestic Partners or Marry   §3.2

               C.   Out-of-State Registrations and Marriages, and Out-of-State Clients   §3.3

           D.   Registration or Marital Agreement Inquiries   §3.4

           E.   Counseling Intact Couples   §3.5

            F.   Estate Planning   §3.6

           G.   Dissolution of Domestic Partnership or Marriage, or Both   §3.7

           H.   Mediation, Collaborative Law, Arbitration, and Private Judging   §3.8

       II.   ETHICAL ISSUES

           A.   Duties to Former Clients   §3.9

           B.   Duties to New Clients

                1.   Overview   §3.10

                2.   Estate Planning   §3.11

                3.   Decision to Register as Domestic Partners or Marry   §3.12

                4.   Agreements Made Before and After Registration or Marriage

                    a.   Registration and Premarital Agreements   §3.13

                    b.   “Postmarital” Agreements   §3.14

           C.   Precautions for Dual Representation or Lack of Independent Counsel   §3.15

      III.   ATTORNEY’S DUTY OF COMPETENCE AS PROFESSIONAL

           A.   Overview   §3.16

           B.   Core Competency in Knowledge of Domestic Partnership and Marriage Law   §3.17

           C.   Importance of “Cross-Training”   §3.18

           D.   Disclosing Uncertainties   §3.19

           E.   Registration and Premarital Agreements   §3.20

            F.   Effect of Client’s Financial Limitations   §3.21

      IV.   ATTORNEY’S SOCIAL AND CULTURAL COMPETENCE

           A.   Emerging Law Requires Sensitivity to Social and Cultural Issues   §3.22

           B.   Issues Requiring Special Attention   §3.23

           C.   Need for Attorney Education   §3.24

           D.   Importance of Unbiased Judgments About Clients to Effective Communication   §3.25

       V.   FORMS

           A.   Form: New Client Intake Sheet/Checklist of Issues   §3.26

           B.   Form: Client Retainer Agreement   §3.27

           C.   Form: Conflict of Interest Waiver Letter   §3.28

               D.   Form: Agreement Transmittal Letter   §3.29

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4

Special Issues Faced by Same-Sex Couples on Termination of Their Relationships

Robert        W. Stanley

          I.    EVOLVING LEGAL RIGHTS OF SAME-SEX COUPLES   §4.1

       II.    SAME-SEX RELATIONSHIP OPTIONS AND CHOICES   §4.2

      III.    PREMARITAL AND PREPARTNERSHIP RELATIONSHIPS; RETROACTIVITY   §4.3

      IV.    INTERSTATE RELATIONSHIPS   §4.4

       V.    MARVIN CLAIMS   §4.5

      VI.    PUTATIVE SPOUSE AND PUTATIVE PARTNER CLAIMS   §4.6

     VII.    RELATIONSHIP AGREEMENTS   §4.7

      VIII.    OTHER ISSUES   §4.8

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5

Agreements Between Domestic Partners and Same-Sex Spouses

Peter M. Walzer

          I.    INTRODUCTION

           A.   Scope of Chapter      §5.1

           B.   Agreements in Context of Domestic Partner Relationships and Same-Sex Marriages      §5.2

           C.   Overview of Types of Agreements      §5.3

           D.   Required Disclosure When Providing Tax Advice      §5.4

       II.   AGREEMENTS MADE OUTSIDE OF REGISTRATION OR MARRIAGE CONTEXT

           A.   Agreements Required by Employers

                1.   Nature of Employer-Required Agreements      §5.5

                2.   Rescission of Employer-Required Agreements      §5.6

           B.   Nonmarital Cohabitation (“Marvin”) Agreements      §5.7

      III.   AGREEMENTS MADE IN ANTICIPATION OF REGISTRATION (PREREGISTRATION) OR MARRIAGE (PREMARITAL)

           A.   Overview

                1.   General Nature and Scope of Preregistration and Premarital Agreements      §5.8

                2.   Agreements for Domestic Partners Registered Before 2005      §5.9

           B.   Need for Independent Counsel and Disclosure of Assets and Liabilities

                1.   Independent Counsel      §5.10

                2.   Disclosure of Assets and Liabilities

                    a.   Need for Disclosure, Unless Waived      §5.11

                    b.   “Seven Calendar Day” Rule      §5.12

           C.   Confirmation Versus Separate Property Agreements      §5.13

                1.   Confirmation Agreements      §5.14

                2.   Separate Property Agreements      §5.15

           D.   Limitations Posed by Federal Law in Transferring or Dividing Property      §5.16

           E.   “Spousal” Support Planning      §5.17

            F.   Amending or Revoking Agreement After Registration      §5.18

           G.   Statute of Limitations and Equitable Defenses      §5.19

      IV.   AGREEMENTS MADE WHILE REGISTERED OR MARRIED (“POSTREGISTRATION” OR POSTMARITAL)

           A.   Overview

                1.   General Nature and Scope of Postregistration or Postmarital Agreements      §5.20

                2.   Special Rules for Partners Registered Before January 1, 2005      §5.21

                3.   Disclosure and Need for Independent Counsel      §5.22

           B.   Views on Validity of Postregistration Agreements

                1.   Presumption of Undue Influence      §5.23

                2.   Parties Free to Contract if No Unfair Advantage Taken      §5.24

           C.   Prohibited Subjects of Agreement      §5.25

           D.   Support of Partner      §5.26

       V.   AGREEMENTS TO TERMINATE PARTNERSHIP OR MARRIAGE OR FOR LEGAL SEPARATION (“DISSOLUTION OR MARITAL SETTLEMENT AGREEMENT”)

           A.   Overview

                1.   General Nature and Scope of Dissolution and Marital Settlement Agreements      §5.27

                2.   Matters Generally Included Within Agreement      §5.28

           B.   Disclosure and Need for Independent Counsel

                1.   Disclosure      §5.29

                2.   Need for Independent Counsel      §5.30

           C.   Special Issues for Domestic Partners

                1.   Tax Issues

                    a.   Property Divisions

                         (1)  No Treatment Under IRC §1041      §5.31

                         (2)  Consideration of Possible California Real Property Reassessments      §5.32

                    b.   Child Support and Dependency Exemption

                         (1)  Child Support      §5.33

                         (2)  Dependency Exemption      §5.34

                     c.   Living Expenses and Support of Partner

                         (1)  Consideration of Gift Tax in Contracting About Living Expenses

                              (a)   Why Gift Tax Issue Arises      §5.35

                              (b)   Agreement for Gift of Living Expenses      §5.36

                         (2)  Support of Partner      §5.37

                    d.   Health Insurance for Partner or Child      §5.38

                2.   Determining Duration and Amount of Support for Partner

                    a.   Support Duration      §5.39

                    b.   Support Amount      §5.40

                3.   Child Custody and Visitation      §5.41

                4.   Choice of Law and Jurisdiction      §5.42

      VI.   FORMS

           A.   Special Provisions for Domestic Partnership Agreements

                1.   Form: Provision That All Property Acquired During Partnership Is Separate Property, Except as Otherwise Designated in Agreement      §5.43

                2.   Form: Treatment of Loan Proceeds      §5.44

                3.   Form: Provision for Exchange of Income Tax Information and Use of Same Tax Return Preparer      §5.45

                4.   Form: Provision for Filing of Separate Income Tax Returns      §5.46

                5.   Form: Provision for Declaring Proceeds of Sale of Joint Property on Tax Returns      §5.47

                6.   Form: Provision for Indemnification for Unforeseen Tax Consequences      §5.48

                7.   Form: Provision Addressing Tax Liability for Assets Acquired Before 2005 That Are Retroactively Treated as Community Property      §5.49

                8.   Form: Provision for Gift of Living Expenses      §5.50

           B.   Sample Complete Agreements

                1.   Form: Preregistration Domestic Partnership Agreement—Confirmation Style Agreement      §5.51

                2.   Form: Postregistration Domestic Partnership Agreement      §5.52

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6

General Property Rights and Obligations

Sandra I. Blair

          I.    INTRODUCTION   §6.1

       II.   RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS DURING ONGOING DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP

           A.   Application of Community Property Law to Registered Partners   §6.2

           B.   Characterization of Preregistration Assets and Debts   §6.3

           C.   Title Presumptions Applicable to Ownership of Assets   §6.4

           D.   Choice of Form of Title for Assets   §6.5

           E.   Effect of Change in Form of Title   §6.6

            F.   Right of Equal Management and Control   §6.7

           G.   Fiduciary Duties Regarding Property   §6.8

           H.   Transmutation of Property   §6.9

             I.   Liability for Contract and Tort Debts   §6.10

            J.   Amendment of “Earned Income” Statute   §6.11

      III.   GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DIVIDING COMMUNITY ESTATE ON TERMINATION OF PARTNERSHIP

           A.   Overview   §6.12

           B.   Importance of Determining When Partnership Began (“Date of Marriage”)

                1.   Inception of Partnership as of Registration Date   §6.13

                2.   Constitutionality of Provision on Retroactivity to Date of Registration   §6.14

           C.   Importance of Date of Separation   §6.15

           D.   General Rules for Division of Assets and Debts

                1.   Overview   §6.16

                2.   Anticipating Predominance of Separate Property in Forthcoming Dissolutions of Registered Partnerships   §6.17

                3.   Limitations on Jurisdiction to Divide Separate Property   §6.18

                4.   Application of Federal Tax Law to Division of Community Property in Dissolution Action   §6.19

                5.   Federal Preemption Issues

                    a.   Assets Held by Federal Government   §6.20

                    b.   Federally Regulated Pensions, IRAs, or Other Federally Regulated Assets

                         (1)  ERISA-Regulated Plans   §6.21

                         (2)  Contributory Plans Qualified Under Federal Tax Law   §6.22

                         (3)  Publicly Held Defined Benefit Plans   §6.23

                6.   Application of Tracing Rules   §6.24

                7.   Division Methods   §6.25

                8.   Valuation of Community Estate   §6.26

                     9.   Ongoing Fiduciary Duties and Disclosure   §6.27

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7

Real Property Rights and Obligations

Katherine E. Stoner

          I.    SCOPE OF CHAPTER   §7.1

       II.   CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF REAL PROPERTY OF DOMESTIC PARTNERS AND SAME-SEX SPOUSES—GENERAL PRINCIPLES

           A.   Community Property Rules Apply   §7.2

           B.   Characterization of Separate and Community Property   §7.3

                1.   Special Rule for Property Acquired During Domestic Partnership   §7.4

                2.   Tracing   §7.5

                3.   Characterization of Jointly Held Property   §7.6

                4.   Quasi-Community Property   §7.7

                5.   Quasi-Marital Property   §7.8

           C.   Role of Presumptions in Characterizing Property   §7.9

                1.   General Presumption of Community Property   §7.10

                2.   Title Presumption   §7.11

                3.   Joint Title Presumption   §7.12

                4.   Community Property Title Presumption   §7.13

                5.   Presumption of Undue Influence   §7.14

                6.   Application of Conflicting Presumptions   §7.15

           D.   Apportionment and Reimbursement   §7.16

      III.   ADVISING PARTNERS AND SAME-SEX SPOUSES IN REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS

           A.   Ethical Aspects of Dual Representation   §7.17

           B.   Representation in Drafting of Preregistration or Premarital Documents   §7.18

           C.   Need for Separate Representation in Interpartner or Interspousal Transactions   §7.19

      IV.   GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CHOOSING FORM OF TITLE

           A.   Forms of Joint Title Available to Partners and Same-Sex Spouses   §7.20

           B.   Estate Planning Considerations   §7.21

           C.   Title Insurance Issues   §7.22

       V.    LIABILITY FOR DEBTS   §7.23

      VI.    TAX ASPECTS OF OWNING AND TRANSFERRING REAL PROPERTY DURING PARTNERSHIP OR MARRIAGE   §7.24

           A.   Allocation of Real Property-Related Income and Deductions on Individual Tax Returns   §7.25

           B.   Tax Issues on Interparty Transfers   §7.26

                1.   Gift Tax   §7.27

                2.   Capital Gains Tax   §7.28

                3.   Property Tax and Local Transfer Tax   §7.29

     VII.   TRANSFERS DURING PARTNERSHIP OR MARRIAGE

           A.   Management and Control of Community Property Real Estate   §7.30

           B.   Fiduciary Relationship Between Partners and Spouses   §7.31

    VIII.   REAL PROPERTY ISSUES ON DISSOLUTION OF PARTNERSHIP OR MARRIAGE

           A.   Jurisdiction   §7.32

           B.   Separate Civil Action for Preregistration or Premarital Claims   §7.33

           C.   Postseparation Issues

                1.   Occupancy of Family Home   §7.34

                2.   Responsibility for Payments During Separation   §7.35

                3.   Epstein Reimbursement and Watts Credits

                    a.   Epstein Reimbursement   §7.36

                    b.   Watts Credits   §7.37

           D.   Standard Restraining Orders in Summons   §7.38

           E.   Notice of Pending Action (Lis Pendens)   §7.39

            F.   Valuation and Division of Community Property Real Estate

                1.   Property Settlement Agreements   §7.40

                2.   Division by Court   §7.41

                    a.   Presumptions Apply   §7.42

                    b.   Reimbursement for Separate Property Contributions   §7.43

                     c.   Moore/Marsden Apportionment   §7.44

                    d.   Deferred Sale of Home Order   §7.45

                    e.   Joinder of Third Party Holding Title to Community Property   §7.46

                     f.   Tax Consequences of Buy-Out or Sale   §7.47

                3.   Enforcement of Judgment   §7.48

      IX.   REAL PROPERTY ISSUES ON DEATH OF DOMESTIC PARTNER OR SAME-SEX SPOUSE

           A.   Rights of Surviving Partner or Spouse in General   §7.49

           B.   Characterization of Property

                1.   Overview   §7.50

                2.   Fam C §2581 Presumption Inapplicable   §7.51

                3.   No Reimbursement Under Fam C §2640   §7.52

                4.   Apportionment and Reimbursement   §7.53

           C.   Real Property Located Out of State   §7.54

           D.   Probate Homestead and Family Allowance   §7.55

           E.   Tax Considerations   §7.56

                1.   Property Taxes and Local Transfer Tax   §7.57

                2.   Gift and Estate Tax   §7.58

                3.   Capital Gains Tax Implications   §7.59

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8

Employee Benefits

Teresa S. Renaker
Julie H. Wilensky

          I.   INTRODUCTION

           A.   Scope of Chapter      §8.1

           B.   Context of Employee Benefit Issues for Domestic Partners and Same-Sex Spouses      §8.2

       II.   OVERVIEW OF FEDERAL AND STATE REGULATION OF EMPLOYEE BENEFITS

           A.   Importance of Determining Governing Law      §8.3

           B.   Federal Regulation

                1.   ERISA

                    a.   Scope of Regulation      §8.4

                    b.   Exempt Plans      §8.5

                     c.   Exempt Employer Practices      §8.6

                    d.   Plans Without Employees      §8.7

                    e.   Effect of Compliance or Noncompliance With ERISA Requirements      §8.8

                     f.   Effect of ERISA Regulation      §8.9

                2.   Section 3 of Defense of Marriage Act Held Unconstitutional; Current Federal Guidance      §8.10

                3.   Potential Retroactivity Issues After Windsor      §8.11

                4.   Treatment of Federal Employees      §8.12

           C.   State Regulation

                1.   California Domestic Partner Rights and Responsibilities Act      §8.13

                2.   California Insurance Equality Act      §8.14

                3.   State Regulation of Governmental Plans

                    a.   Overview      §8.15

                    b.   Long-Term Care      §8.16

                     c.   Qualified Plans      §8.17

      III.   OTHER FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL LAWS AFFECTING EMPLOYEE BENEFITS AND RIGHTS

           A.   Federal and State Antidiscrimination Laws      §8.18

           B.   Local Regulation of Private Employer Plans      §8.19

           C.   Health Plans and Other Welfare Benefit Plans      §8.20

                1.   Insured Health and Other Welfare Benefit Plans      §8.21

                2.   Self-Funded Health and Other Welfare Benefit Plans      §8.22

                    a.   Self-Funded Non-ERISA Plans      §8.23

                    b.   Self-Funded ERISA Plans

                         (1)  No Requirement to Provide Domestic Partner or Same-Sex Spouse Benefits      §8.24

                         (2)  Plan Language May Require Equal Benefits for Same-Sex Spouses or Domestic Partners      §8.25

                3.   Health Plan Continuation Coverage

                    a.   Statutory Continuation Coverage Requirements for ERISA-Governed Health Plans      §8.26

                    b.   Statutory Continuation Coverage Requirements for Non-ERISA Health Plans      §8.27

                     c.   Plan Continuation Coverage Provisions      §8.28

                4.   Welfare Plan Default Beneficiary Provisions      §8.29

                5.   Taxation of Welfare Plan Benefits      §8.30

                6.   Maintenance of Health Benefits and Beneficiary Status in Bifurcated Dissolution Proceedings      §8.31

           D.   Qualified Retirement Plans      §8.32

                1.   Forms of Benefit Under Defined Benefit Plans      §8.33

                2.   Beneficiary Designations Under Defined Contribution Plans      §8.34

                3.   Rollover of Retirement Plan Benefits by Nonspouse Beneficiary      §8.35

                4.   Hardship Distributions      §8.36

           E.   State and Federal Employment Leave Laws      §8.37

                1.   California Family Rights Act      §8.38

                2.   Family and Medical Leave Act      §8.39

                3.   California Paid Family Leave Act      §8.40

                    a.   Eligibility      §8.41

                    b.   Relation to FMLA and CFRA      §8.42

                4.   Sick Leave      §8.43

                5.   California Domestic Violence Employment Leave Act      §8.44

                6.   California Crime Victims Employment Leave Act      §8.45

                7.   Time Off to Appear in School on Behalf of Suspended Child      §8.46

                8.   Time Off to Participate in School-Related Activities      §8.47

                9.   Nongovernmentally Mandated Leave Policies      §8.48

      IV.   PUBLIC BENEFITS RELATED TO EMPLOYMENT

           A.   Effect of DPRRA on Right to Benefits      §8.49

           B.   Unemployment Insurance      §8.50

           C.   State Disability Insurance      §8.51

       V.   COMMUNITY PROPERTY ISSUES

           A.   Community Property Rights of Registered Domestic Partners and Same-Sex Spouses, and Related Tax Issues      §8.52

           B.   Employee Benefits as Community Property      §8.53

           C.   Division of Employee Benefits      §8.54

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9

Disposition of Businesses, Insurance, Bank Accounts, and Other Assets

Vaughn Z. Korbin

          I.    INTRODUCTION   §9.1

       II.   SMALL BUSINESSES AND PROFESSIONAL PRACTICES

           A.   General Considerations in Dividing Businesses and Professional Practices   §9.2

           B.   Division and Sale Issues   §9.3

           C.   Valuation

                1.   Date of Valuation   §9.4

                2.   Valuation Methods   §9.5

      III.    LIFE INSURANCE   §9.6

      IV.    SAVINGS, CHECKING, AND SIMILAR ACCOUNTS   §9.7

       V.   PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION AWARDS

           A.   Personal Injury Damages   §9.8

               B.   Workers’ Compensation Awards   §9.9

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10

Health and Medical Care, Conservatorship, and Related Issues

Christine J. Wilson

          I.    INTRODUCTION

           A.   Scope of Chapter   §10.1

           B.   Context of Health and Medical Care Issues for Domestic Partners   §10.2

       II.   HEALTH AND MEDICAL CARE ISSUES FOR DOMESTIC PARTNERS

           A.   Hospital Visitation   §10.3

                1.   Patient Rights in General   §10.4

                2.   Specific Visitation Rights Given to Domestic Partner by Statute   §10.5

                3.   Practical Remedies for Domestic Partners   §10.6

           B.   Consent to Treatment

                1.   Need for Informed Consent   §10.7

                2.   Capacity to Give Consent   §10.8

                3.   Domestic Partnership and Consent for Treatment

                    a.   Ordinary Medical Treatment   §10.9

                    b.   Nonemergency Experimental Treatment   §10.10

                4.   Advance Health Care Directives

                    a.   Health Care Decisions Law   §10.11

                    b.   Important Definitions   §10.12

                     c.   Content and Validity   §10.13

                    d.   Witnesses   §10.14

                    e.   Appointment of Agent by Power of Attorney for Health Care   §10.15

                     f.   Authority of Health Care Agent    §10.16

                    g.   Obtaining Patient’s Medical Records

                         (1)  Overview   §10.17

                         (2)  Effect of “HIPAA”   §10.18

                    h.   Revocation of Advance Directives   §10.19

                5.   Health Care Surrogates   §10.20

                6.   Compliance With Health Care Instructions by Health Care Providers   §10.21

                7.   Judicial Enforcement of Advance Directives   §10.22

                8.   Petitions Regarding Health Care Decisions if No Power of Attorney   §10.23

      III.   USING DURABLE POWERS OF ATTORNEY FOR DOMESTIC PARTNERS

           A.   Permissible Scope of Powers   §10.24

           B.   Immediately Effective Versus “Springing” Durable Powers of Attorney

                1.   Significance of When Power Is Effective   §10.25

                2.   Springing Powers   §10.26

                3.   Immediately Effective Powers   §10.27

           C.   Practical Issues for Domestic Partners   §10.28

           D.   California Statutory Power of Attorney   §10.29

           E.   Considerations in Drafting General Durable Powers of Attorney   §10.30

            F.   Selection of Attorney-in-Fact   §10.31

           G.   Duties of Attorney-in-Fact   §10.32

           H.   Effect on Attorney-in-Fact of Terminating Domestic Partnership   §10.33

             I.   Powers of Attorney and Third Parties   §10.34

            J.   Judicial Proceedings Concerning Powers of Attorney   §10.35

      IV.   CONSERVATORSHIP

           A.   Nature of Conservatorship   §10.36

           B.   Preference for Nominee as Conservator   §10.37

           C.   Petitioning for Conservatorship   §10.38

           D.   Preference for Domestic Partner as Conservator   §10.39

           E.   Notice of Hearing   §10.40

            F.   Role of Court Investigator   §10.41

           G.   Court Hearing and Order   §10.42

           H.   Rights and Duties of Conservator   §10.43

             I.   Community Property and Conservatorship Estate   §10.44

            J.   Legal Capacity of Conservatee   §10.45

       V.   FORMS

           A.   Form: Full Confidence in Domestic Partner as Health Care Agent and Conservator   §10.46

           B.   Form: Exclusion of Individual or Entity as Health Care Agent or Conservator   §10.47

           C.   Form: Certificate of Counsel for Elimination of Authority to Petition Under Prob C §4766   §10.48

           D.   Form: Springing Power of Attorney   §10.49

           E.   Form: Physician Declaration of Incapacity   §10.50

            F.   Form: Designated Individual Declaration of Incapacity   §10.51

           G.   Form: Termination of Springing Durable Power of Attorney on Restoration of Capacity   §10.52

           H.   Form: Declaration Establishing Restoration of Capacity   §10.53

             I.   Form: Nomination of Conservator   §10.54

            J.   Form: Statutory Advance Directive   §10.55

           K.   Form: Statutory Form General Power of Attorney   §10.56

            L.   Form: General Immediately Effective Durable Power of Attorney for Asset Management   §10.57

           M.   Form: Springing Durable Power of Attorney for Asset Management   §10.58

               N.   Form: Petition for Order Compelling Third Party to Honor Authority of Attorney-in-Fact   §10.59

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11

Rights on Death of Domestic Partner and Estate Planning Issues

Virginia Palmer
Yulissa Zulaica

          I.   GENERAL RIGHTS IN CONNECTION WITH PARTNER’S DEATH

           A.   Introduction   §11.1

                1.   Rights of Domestic Partners Correspond to Spousal Rights Under California Law   §11.2

                2.   California Recognition of Relationships Equivalent to Domestic Partnership   §11.3

                3.   Same-Sex Marriage   §11.4

           B.   Right to Property on Death of Domestic Partner

                1.   Right of Intestate Succession   §11.5

                2.   Right to Community Property   §11.6

                    a.   Right to Set Aside Community Property Gifts Made Without Consent   §11.7

                    b.   Right to Set Aside Nonprobate Transfers of Community Property Made Without Consent   §11.8

                     c.   Treatment of Multiple-Party Accounts   §11.9

                3.   Right to Quasi-Community Property

                    a.   Rights on Death in General   §11.10

                    b.   Challenges to Decedent’s Transfer of Property   §11.11

           C.   Right to Administer Estate of Deceased Partner   §11.12

           D.   Right to Dispose of Decedent’s Estate Without Probate Administration

                1.   Estate Administration Unnecessary in Certain Cases   §11.13

                2.   Surviving Partner’s Right to Deal With Community Property   §11.14

                3.   Special Rule for Community Property in Revocable Trust   §11.15              15

                4.   Property Petition by Surviving Partner   §11.16

           E.   Election to Subject Property to Probate Administration   §11.17

            F.   Right to Collect Compensation Owed to Deceased Partner   §11.18

           G.   Family Protection Statutes   §11.19

                1.   Temporary Possession of Family Dwelling and Exempt Property by Domestic Partner   §11.20

                2.   Probate Homestead for Domestic Partner   §11.21

                3.   Exempt Property Set Aside to Domestic Partner   §11.22

                4.   Small-Estate Set-Aside to Domestic Partner   §11.23

                5.   Family Allowance for Domestic Partner   §11.24

                6.   Effect of Family Protection Statutes on Estate Planning   §11.25

           H.   Statutory Share Provided to Omitted Domestic Partner   §11.26

             I.   Other Rights on Death of Domestic Partner

                1.   Antilapse Statute   §11.27

                2.   Right to Dispose of Deceased Partner’s Remains   §11.28

       II.   GENERAL ESTATE PLANNING ISSUES

           A.   Creating Estate Plans in Contemplation of Ongoing Domestic Partnership

                1.   Attorney-Client Issues in Estate Planning Context   §11.29

                    a.   Joint Representation

                         (1)  Ethical Issues   §11.30

                         (2)  Privilege of Confidential Marital Communications   §11.31

                         (3)  Property Interests That Pose Conflict   §11.32

                         (4)  Third Party Contestants   §11.33

                    b.   Other Issues to Explore With Client

                         (1)  Fact and Type of Registration   §11.34

                         (2)  Marital or Domestic Partnership Status of Partners   §11.35

                         (3)  Characterization of Assets   §11.36

                         (4)  Omitted Partners and Children   §11.37

                2.   Drafting Estate Planning Documents

                    a.   General Drafting Considerations   §11.38

                    b.   Need for Estate Planning   §11.39

                     c.   Specific Drafting Issues   §11.40

                    d.   Summary of Representative Estate Planning Documents for Domestic Partners

                         (1)  Separate Revocable Trusts   §11.41

                         (2)  Bypass or Credit Shelter Trusts   §11.42

                         (3)  Joint and Community Property Trusts   §11.43

                         (4)  Irrevocable Trusts   §11.44

                         (5)  Use of Joint Tenancy   §11.45

                         (6)  Advance Health Care Directives and Instructions on Handling Remains   §11.46

                         (7)  Durable Power of Attorney for Personal Care   §11.47

                         (8)  Power of Attorney for Asset Management   §11.48

                         (9)  Nomination of Conservators   §11.49

                        (10)  Nomination of Guardian for Children   §11.50

                        (11)  Property Transmutation Agreements   §11.51

                        (12)  Beneficiary Designations   §11.52

                        (13)  Gifts   §11.53

           B.   Estate Planning in Contemplation of Terminating Domestic Partnership or Dissolution of Marriage   §11.54

                1.   Review of Warnings on Family Law Summons and Automatic Temporary Restraining Orders   §11.55

                    a.   Jointly Titled Property   §11.56

                    b.   Operation of Automatic Temporary Restraining Orders   §11.57

                2.   Automatic Revocation of Wills and Trusts on Termination of Partnership   §11.58

      III.   FORMS

           A.   Form: Letter to Client on Joint Representation for Estate Planning Matter   §11.59

           B.   Form: Spousal or Domestic Partner Property Petition (Probate—Decedents Estates) (Judicial Council Form DE-221)   §11.60

           C.   Form: Spousal or Domestic Partner Property Order (Probate—Decedents Estates) (Judicial Council Form DE-226)   §11.61

           D.   Form: Sample Estate Planning Questionnaire for Registered Domestic Partners and Same-Sex Spouses   §11.62

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12

Evidentiary Privileges and Tort-Related Issues

Hon. Elizabeth A. Hendrickson

          I.   EVIDENTIARY PRIVILEGES

           A.   Introduction   §12.1

           B.   Testimonial Privileges   §12.2

           C.   Marital Communication Privilege   §12.3

           D.   Burden of Proof Differs for Each Privilege   §12.4

           E.   Proof of Relationship

                1.   Status of Registered Domestic Partnership Must Be Shown   §12.5

                2.   Documentary Proof of Existence or Termination of Domestic Partnership   §12.6

            F.   Proceedings Covered by Privileges   §12.7

           G.   Domestic Partner Equivalents Covered by Privileges   §12.8

           H.   Treatment of Same-Sex Couples Who Married Outside California   §12.9

             I.   Importance of Determining Date Legal Relationship Begins   §12.10

            J.   Retroactive Application of Law for Partners Registered Before January 1, 2005   §12.11

           K.   “Former Testimony” as Applied to Domestic Partners Registered Before January 1, 2005   §12.12

            L.   Invoking Evidentiary Privileges Midtrial   §12.13

           M.   Effect of Partners’ Dissolution on Privileges

                1.   Dissolution Timing Affects Both Privileges   §12.14

                2.   Review of Court Judgments and Secretary of State Records to Determine Effective Partnership Termination Date   §12.15

           N.   Effect of Partnership Termination by Nullity Proceedings   §12.16

           O.   Waiver of Privileges   §12.17

           P.   Sister-State and Federal Court Recognition Issues   §12.18

       II.   TORT-RELATED ISSUES

           A.   Wrongful Death Actions   §12.19

           B.   Recovery of Emotional Distress Damages   §12.20

           C.   Recovery for Loss of Consortium   §12.21

           D.   No Bar to Court Actions Between Partners   §12.22

           E.   Liability of Domestic Partners for Injury to Third Parties   §12.23

            F.   Standing of Sister-State Domestic Partner Registrants to Raise California Causes of Action   §12.24

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13

Support Rights and Obligations

Hon. Elizabeth A. Hendrickson

          I.    INTRODUCTION   §13.1

       II.   RIGHT TO SUPPORT BETWEEN DOMESTIC PARTNERS

           A.   Legal Proceedings in Which Support May Be Ordered

                1.   Overview   §13.2

                2.   Specific Proceedings

                    a.   Dissolution or Legal Separation   §13.3

                    b.   Nullity Proceedings   §13.4

                     c.   Domestic Violence Prevention Act Proceedings   §13.5

                    d.   Support Action During Intact Partnership   §13.6

           B.   Summary of Support Law   §13.7

           C.   Standards and Procedures for Obtaining Partner Support

                1.   Overview   §13.8

                2.   Tax Treatment of Partner Support   §13.9

                3.   Temporary Partner Support

                    a.   Short Cause Hearing   §13.10

                    b.   Calculating Support   §13.11

                4.   Permanent Partner Support

                    a.   Award After Trial   §13.12

                    b.   Use of Temporary Guidelines Not Permitted   §13.13

                     c.   Legal Significance of Duration of Domestic Partnership   §13.14

                    d.   Calculating Length of Domestic Partner Relationship

                         (1)  Use of “Date of Registration”   §13.15

                         (2)  Retroactive Date of Registration for Partners Registered Before January 1, 2005   §13.16

                         (3)  Special Problem of Preregistration Cohabitation   §13.17

                    e.   Treatment of “Domestic Partner Equivalents”

                         (1)  California Recognition   §13.18

                         (2)  “Date of Registration” for Domestic Partner Equivalents   §13.19

                         (3)  Same-Sex Marriages Not Covered   §13.20

                5.   Family Support Not Appropriate   §13.21

           D.   Jurisdiction, Venue, and State Residency Considerations

                1.   Marriage Cases   §13.22

                2.   Domestic Partnership Cases   §13.23

                3.   Effect of Gender Change   §13.24

           E.   General Enforcement Considerations

                1.   Enforcement Using Conventional Means   §13.25

                2.   Requesting Security for Partner Support   §13.26

                3.   Treatment of California Domestic Partners in Sister-State Courts   §13.27

                4.   Enforcing Preregistration Agreements in Family Court Actions   §13.28

                5.   Support Actions Brought Under Agreement or Contract

                    a.   Overview   §13.29

                    b.   Civil Actions to Enforce Cohabitation or “Marvin” Agreements   §13.30

            F.   Modifiability of Agreement-Based Support Award   §13.31

      III.   SUPPORT OF CHILDREN

           A.   Context of Child Support Issues for Registered Domestic Partners   §13.32

           B.   Nature and Duration of Child Support Obligation   §13.33

           C.   Effect of Support Agreement

                1.   Agreement Limiting Duty of Support Is Void; Payment of Support Below “Guideline” Possible

                    a.   Agreement Limiting Support Duty   §13.34

                    b.   Agreement for “Below Guideline” Support   §13.35

                2.   Support Agreement May Expand Child Support Liability   §13.36

           D.   Legal Proceedings in Which Child Support May Be Requested   §13.37

           E.   Calculation of Child Support   §13.38

            F.   Assets Available to Discharge Support Debt   §13.39

           G.   Wage Assignments and Security for Child Support   §13.40

           H.   Enforcement of Child Support Orders   §13.41

             I.   Income Tax Issues Related to Child Support   §13.42

            J.   Modifiability of Child Support   §13.43

      IV.   INTERSTATE AND FOREIGN SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT ISSUES   §13.44

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14

Parentage, Adoption, and Child Custody

Sheri E. Cohen
Hon. Margaret S. Johnson
Thomas M. Pinkerton, Jr.

          I.   INTRODUCTION

           A.   Scope of Chapter   §14.1

           B.   Interplay of Parentage, Adoption, and Custody; Uncertain Retroactivity of Law   §14.2

       II.   PARENTAGE

           A.   Understanding Parentage Issues in Domestic Partner Context   §14.3

           B.   Application of Parentage Presumptions to Domestic Partners

                1.   Marital Presumptions

                    a.   Overview   §14.4

                    b.   “Child of the Marriage” (Fam C §7540)   §14.5

                     c.   “Marriage” or “Attempt to Marry” (Fam C §7611(a)–(c))   §14.6

                    d.   Birth Certificate Issue for Same-Sex Couples   §14.7

                2.   Nonmarital Presumption—”Receipt of Child Into Home” (Fam C §7611(d))   §14.8

           C.   Role of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Family Planning for Domestic Partners

                1.   Assisted Reproductive Technology Defined   §14.9

                2.   Multiple Options for Conception   §14.10

                3.   Gestational Surrogacy   §14.11

                4.   Traditional Surrogacy   §14.12

      III.   ADOPTION

           A.   Nature and Legal Effect of Adoption   §14.13

           B.   Adoption Distinguished From Guardianship and Informal Parenting Arrangements   §14.14

           C.   Stepparent Adoption of Partner’s Child

                1.   Ability to Use Stepparent Adoption   §14.15

                2.   Initiating Adoption Process   §14.16

                3.   Investigation   §14.17

                4.   Consent Issues   §14.18

                5.   Prehearing Preparation and Hearing   §14.19

           D.   “Second Parent” Adoption of Partner’s Child   §14.20

           E.   Adoption of Child Unrelated to Either Partner

                1.   Use of Adoption by Both Domestic Partners   §14.21

                2.   “Fost-Adopt”   §14.22

                3.   Private Domestic Adoption

                    a.   Description   §14.23

                    b.   Agency Adoption   §14.24

                     c.   Independent Adoption   §14.25

                    d.   Trend Toward “Open” Adoptions   §14.26

                    e.   Compliance With Interstate Compact on Placement of Children   §14.27

                4.   International Adoption

                    a.   Growing Practice of International Adoption   §14.28

                    b.   Benefits and Risks   §14.29

                     c.   Researching Source Countries   §14.30

                    d.   Finalizing Adoption Abroad   §14.31

                    e.   Meeting Federal Requirements   §14.32

      IV.   CHILD CUSTODY AND VISITATION

           A.   Overview   §14.33

           B.   Nature of Custody and Visitation Rights

                1.   Custody   §14.34

                2.   Visitation   §14.35

           C.   When Custody and Visitation Issues Arise   §14.36

           D.   Treating Children of Domestic Partnership as “Children of Marriage”   §14.37

           E.   Children Subject to Custody and Visitation Orders   §14.38

                1.   Presumed “Children of the Partnership” by Birth During Partnership   §14.39

                2.   Adoption During Partnership   §14.40

                3.   Children “of Relationship” Not Born During Registered Domestic Partnership   §14.41

                4.   One Partner’s Child From Prior Relationship or Adoption

                    a.   Parentage of Child’s Other Parent Established   §14.42

                    b.   Parentage of Child’s Other Parent Not Established   §14.43

            F.   Use of Standard Custody Procedures   §14.44

           G.   Handling Special Issues

                1.   UCCJEA   §14.45

                2.   Mediation and Evaluation   §14.46

                3.   Avoiding Prejudice From “Lifestyle” Issues   §14.47

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15

Income, Gift, and Estate Tax Considerations

M. Jean Johnston

          I.   INTRODUCTION

           A.   Scope of Chapter      §15.1

           B.   Overview of DPRRA’s and Windsor's Tax Implications      §15.2

       II.   INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS DURING ONGOING MARRIAGES AND DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIPS

           A.   Filing Status for Income Tax Returns      §15.3

           B.   Use of “Head-of-Household” Filing Status for Income Tax Returns      §15.4

           C.   Effect of Filing Status      §15.5

           D.   Determining Taxable Income in View of Community Property System      §15.6

           E.   Treatment of Earned Income as Community Property Reportable by Both Partners      §15.7

            F.   Earned Income as Excluded From Community Tax Treatment      §15.8

           G.   Community Property Income      §15.9

           H.   Self-Employment Income      §15.10

             I.   Adjustments to Income      §15.11

            J.   Itemized Deductions      §15.12

           K.   Personal and Dependency Exemptions      §15.13

            L.   Tax Credits and Other Benefits      §15.14

           M.   Special Considerations Under California Tax Law      §15.15

      III.   INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS ON LEGAL SEPARATION OR DISSOLUTION OF DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP

           A.   Introduction      §15.16

           B.   Support Payments to Partner      §15.17

           C.   Child Support      §15.18

           D.   Property Transfers Between Partners      §15.19

           E.   Deferred Compensation Plans, Retirement Benefits, and Options      §15.20

            F.   California Law      §15.21

      IV.   GIFT AND ESTATE TAX ISSUES

           A.   Transfers Between Partners      §15.22

           B.   Effect of Lack of “Marital Deduction”      §15.23

           C.   Generation-Skipping Transfer Tax      §15.24

           D.   Gifts on Creation of Community      §15.25

           E.   Use of Joint Tenancy as Estate Planning Tool      §15.26

            F.   Strategies for Minimizing Gift or Estate Tax      §15.27

                1.   Use of Tax-Exempt Transfers      §15.28

                2.   Use of Gift and Estate Tax Exemptions

                    a.   Gift Tax Exemption      §15.29

                    b.   Estate Tax Exemption      §15.30

                3.   Use of Bypass Trusts      §15.31

                4.   Use of Life Insurance, Life Insurance Trusts, LLCs, and Limited Partnerships

                    a.   Life Insurance      §15.32

                    b.   Life Insurance Trusts      §15.33

                     c.   LLCs and Limited Partnerships      §15.34

                5.   Use of Charitable, Split Interest, and Intentionally Defective Grantor Trusts      §15.35

                    a.   Charitable Remainder and Charitable Lead Trusts      §15.36

                    b.   Grantor-Retained and Split Interest Trusts      §15.37

                           c.   Intentionally Defective Grantor Trusts      §15.38

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16

Bankruptcy Issues

Michael T. O’Halloran

          I.    INTRODUCTION   §16.1

       II.   CONSTRUING BANKRUPTCY LAW IN VIEW OF DOMA AND STATE DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP STATUTES

           A.   Nature of DOMA   §16.2

           B.   Conflict Between California Domestic Partnership Law and DOMA

                1.   California Law Grants “Spousal” Rights to Registered Domestic Partners   §16.3

                2.   Effect of DOMA in Bankruptcy Area   §16.4

                3.   Construction of “Spouse” in Bankruptcy After Windsor

                    a.   Effects of DOMA and Windsor   §16.5

                    b.   “Domestic Support Obligation” Under DOMA and Windsor   §16.6

                     c.   Treatment of Joint Bankruptcy Petitions by Domestic Partners Under DOMA and Windsor   §16.7

           C.   Bankruptcy Estate Includes Community Interests   §16.8

      III.    RETROACTIVITY ISSUES   §16.9

      IV.    CLAIMS BETWEEN CURRENT OR FORMER DOMESTIC PARTNERS   §16.10

       V.   IDENTIFYING PROPERTY OF BANKRUPTCY ESTATE

           A.   Overview   §16.11

           B.   Defining “Bankruptcy Estate Property” in Domestic Partner Context   §16.12

      VI.   BANKRUPTCY TREATMENT OF DEBTS RELATED TO SUPPORT AND PROPERTY DIVISION

           A.   Support-Related Debts   §16.13

           B.   Property Division-Related Debts   §16.14

     VII.    EFFECT OF AUTOMATIC STAY ON PENDING ACTIONS   §16.15

    VIII.   EXEMPT ASSETS

           A.   Nature of Exemptions   §16.16

           B.   California Statutory Exemptions Apply   §16.17

      IX.   COMPLETING BANKRUPTCY FORMS

           A.   Client Interview and Document Gathering   §16.18

           B.   Completing Individual Forms

                1.   Petition   §16.19

                2.   Asset Schedules: A, B, and C   §16.20

                3.   Debt Schedules D, E, and F   §16.21

                4.   Schedule G: Executory Contracts   §16.22

                5.   Schedule H: Codebtors   §16.23

                6.   Schedule I: Current Income   §16.24

                7.   Schedule J: Current Expenditures   §16.25

                8.   Statement of Financial Affairs (SOFA)   §16.26

       X.    ISSUES RAISED BY SPECIFIC BANKRUPTCY CODE SECTIONS   §16.27

           A.   Code §101   §16.28

                1.   Community Claim   §16.29

                2.   Consumer Debt   §16.30

                3.   Creditor   §16.31

                4.   Current Monthly Income   §16.32

                5.   Domestic Support Obligation   §16.33

                6.   Family Farmer   §16.34

                7.   Insider   §16.35

                8.   Insolvent   §16.36

                9.   Relative   §16.37

              10.   Eligibility for Chapter 13   §16.38

           B.   Code §302 and Joint Cases   §16.39

           C.   Code §362

                1.   Code §362(a) and Scope of Automatic Stay   §16.40

                2.   Code §362(b)(2) and Exceptions to Automatic Stay   §16.41

           D.   Code §507   §16.42

           E.   Code §509 and Rights of Co-Debtors   §16.43

            F.   Code §522 and Exemptions

                1.   Code §522(a)(1) and Dependents   §16.44

                2.   Code §522(f) and Avoiding Liens on Property   §16.45

           G.   Code §523

                1.   Code §523(a)(4) and Breach of Fiduciary Duty   §16.46

                2.   Code §523(a)(5) and Support   §16.47

                3.   Code §523(a)(15) and Nonsupport Debt Arising From Dissolution   §16.48

           H.   Code §524(a)(3); Effect of Discharge   §16.49

             I.   Code §541

                1.   Code §541(a)(1) and Debtor’s Interests in Property   §16.50

                2.   Code §541(a)(2) and Community Property Interests of Debtor and Spouse   §16.51

            J.   Code §547

                1.   Code §547(b)(4) “Avoidable Preference”   §16.52

                2.   Code §547(c)(7) and Certain Defense of Avoidable Preference   §16.53

           K.   Code §707(b) (“Means Test”)   §16.54

            L.   Code §724(b)(2)   §16.55

           M.   Code §726(c)   §16.56

           N.   Code §1301   §16.57

           O.   Code §1322(a)(2)   §16.58

           P.   Code §1325(a)(8)   §16.59

               Q.   Code §1328(a)(2)   §16.60

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17

Limitations and Rights in Obtaining Public Benefits

Alice L. Perlman
Janice L. Sternfeld

          I.   INTRODUCTION

           A.   Scope of Chapter   §17.1

           B.   Public Benefits Issues for Domestic Partners   §17.2

       II.   EFFECT OF FEDERAL DEFENSE OF MARRIAGE ACT

           A.   Text of Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA)   §17.3

           B.   Preemptive Effect of DOMA   §17.4

      III.   SPECIFIC BENEFIT PROGRAMS

           A.   Social Security and Medicare Benefits

                1.   Overview   §17.5

                2.   Social Security Retirement Benefits   §17.6

                3.   Social Security Disability Insurance   §17.7

                4.   Social Security Survivor’s Benefits   §17.8

                5.   Medicare   §17.9

                6.   Social Security Issues for Registered Domestic Partners   §17.10

                    a.   Auxiliary Benefits Coverage for Spouses, Widows, Widowers, and Divorced Spouses   §17.11

                    b.   Auxiliary Benefits Coverage for Children of Domestic Partnerships   §17.12

                     c.   Medicare for Ineligible Domestic Partners   §17.13

                7.   Additional Resources for Social Security Benefits   §17.14

           B.   Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

                1.   Overview of Program   §17.15

                2.   Eligibility   §17.16

                3.   In‑Kind Support and Maintenance   §17.17

                4.   Overpayments and Recovery   §17.18

                5.   Administrative Review and Finality   §17.19

           C.   Medi-Cal Program in General

                1.   Overview of Program   §17.20

                2.   Eligible Persons   §17.21

                    a.   Restrictions on Transfer of Assets by Eligible Persons   §17.22

                    b.   Persons Deemed Categorically Needy   §17.23

                     c.   Automatic Eligibility of SSI and AFDC/TANF Recipients   §17.24

                    d.   Responsible Relatives and “Deeming” of Income and Resources   §17.25

                    e.   Effect of In-Kind Support and Maintenance   §17.26

                     f.   Effect of DPRRA on SSI Eligibility   §17.27

           D.   Medically Needy or Institutional Medi-Cal (Also Called “State-Only” Medi-Cal)

                1.   Overview of Program   §17.28

                2.   Eligibility and Application

                    a.   Single Persons   §17.29

                    b.   Couples   §17.30

                     c.   Application   §17.31

                3.   Recovery From Estate   §17.32

           E.   Food Stamp Program

                1.   Overview of Program   §17.33

                2.   Eligibility   §17.34

                3.   Benefits   §17.35

                4.   Effects of DPRRA   §17.36

            F.   SECTION 8 HOUSING PROGRAM

                1.   Overview of Program   §17.37

                2.   Eligibility   §17.38

           G.   Energy Assistance Programs

                1.   Overview of Programs   §17.39

                2.   Low Income Energy Assistance Program (LIEAP)   §17.40

                3.   California Alternative Rates for Energy (CARE)   §17.41

           H.   Unemployment Insurance Benefits

                1.   Overview   §17.42

                2.   Issues Related to Registered Domestic Partners   §17.43

                3.   Resources   §17.44

             I.   Workers’ Compensation Benefits

                1.   Overview   §17.45

                2.   Issues Related to Registered Domestic Partners   §17.46

                3.   Alerts for the Practitioner   §17.47

            J.   Family Leave Benefits   §17.48

           K.   Veterans’ Benefits

                1.   Federal Benefits   §17.49

                2.   State Veterans’ Benefits   §17.50

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18

Registration and Termination of Domestic Partnerships

CEB Staff

          I.   REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES

           A.   Statutory Requirements   §18.1

           B.   California Residency Not Required   §18.2

           C.   Effect of Preexisting California Domestic Partnership on Filing New Partnership   §18.3

           D.   Effect of Partners’ Prior Marriage   §18.4

           E.   Effect of Entering Into Civil Union or Domestic Partnership Out of State   §18.5

            F.   Effect of Registering Domestic Partnership in California Before 2005   §18.6

           G.   Effect of Registering Only Under City or County Ordinance; Preemptive Effect of State Law   §18.7

           H.   Criminal Penalty for Filing False Declaration of Domestic Partnership   §18.8

             I.   Significance of Registration Date   §18.9

            J.   Mechanics of Registration

                1.   Mandatory Use of Secretary of State Registration Form   §18.10

                2.   Change of Name on Registration   §18.11

                3.   Payment of Fee and Filing With Secretary of State   §18.12

                4.   Issuance of Registration Certificate   §18.13

       II.   TERMINATING DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIPS WITHOUT COURT ACTION

           A.   Statutory Requirements   §18.14

           B.   Mandatory Use of Secretary of State Termination Form; Notarization   §18.15

           C.   Effective Date of Termination   §18.16

           D.   Termination by Notice Procedure Treated as Judgment   §18.17

           E.   Former Law Contrasted   §18.18

            F.   Revoking and Setting Aside Termination   §18.19

      III.   ACTIONS TO TERMINATE DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP AND FOR LEGAL SEPARATION

           A.   When Court Proceedings Required

                1.   Dissolution, Legal Separation, and Nullity Proceedings   §18.20

                2.   Domestic Partnerships Subject to Current Law

                    a.   California Registrants   §18.21

                    b.   Sister-State Registrants   §18.22

                3.   Application of Family Law Statutes, Court Rules, and Forms   §18.23

           B.   Considerations in Initiating Court Action

                1.   Type of Proceeding

                    a.   Dissolution Proceeding   §18.24

                    b.   Legal Separation Proceeding   §18.25

                     c.   Nullity Proceeding   §18.26

                2.   Special Jurisdictional Issues

                    a.   Continuing Jurisdiction Over California Registered Partnerships   §18.27

                    b.   Jurisdiction to Impose Personal Obligations   §18.28

                     c.   Jurisdiction to Decide Child Custody and Visitation Matters   §18.29

                    d.   Jurisdiction to Decide Issues Involving Out-of-State Real Property   §18.30

                    e.   Jurisdiction to Adjudicate Separate Assets Held in Joint Title   §18.31

                3.   Evaluating Need for Immediate Relief   §18.32

                4.   Using Nonadversarial Methods in Reaching Settlement

                    a.   Importance of Seeking Nonadversarial Alternatives to Conventional Litigation   §18.33

                    b.   Three- or Five-Way Mediation   §18.34

                     c.   Collaborative Negotiation   §18.35

                5.   Importance of Observing Disclosure and Fiduciary Obligations   §18.36

           C.   Addressing Specific Areas of Petition and Response Forms

                1.   Statistical Facts   §18.37

                2.   Residence   §18.38

                3.   Declaration Regarding Minor Children   §18.39

                4.   Listing Separate and Community Property   §18.40

                5.   Relief Requested   §18.41

                6.   Response’s Special Provisions   §18.42

      IV.   FORMS

           A.   Registration of Domestic Partnership

                1.   Form: Declaration of Domestic Partnership (Secretary of State Form DP-1)   §18.43

                2.   Form: Confidential Declaration of Domestic Partnership (Secretary of State Form NP/SF DP-1A)   §18.44

           B.   Termination of Domestic Partnership Without Court Action; Revocation

                1.   Form: Notice of Termination of Domestic Partnership (Secretary of State Form DP-2)   §18.45

                2.   Form: Revocation of Termination of Domestic Partnership (Secretary of State Form DP-3)   §18.46

           C.   Dissolution, Legal Separation, or Nullity of Domestic Partnership by Court Petition

                1.   Form: Petition—Domestic Partnership/Marriage (Judicial Council Form FL-103)   §18.47

                2.   Form: Response—Domestic Partnership/Marriage (Judicial Council Form FL-123)   §18.48

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