California Criminal Sentencing Enhancements

Chapter Outlines

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

1

Sentencing Overview

Hon. Philip Pennypacker
William R. Bennett

I.  TRANSITION FROM INDETERMINATE TO DETERMINATE SENTENCING

A.  Pre-1977 Law Based on Indeterminate Sentencing

1.  Nature of Indeterminate Sentencing Law  §1.1

2.  Movement Towards Determinate Sentencing

a.  Allegations of Cruel and Unusual Punishment  §1.2

b.  Need to Formalize Standard Deviation Table for Sentencing  §1.3

c.  Overall Discontent With Indeterminate Sentencing Regime  §1.4

B.  Development and Amendment of Determinate Sentencing Law

1.  Background  §1.5

2.  Phase One: The Initial Determinate Sentencing Law

a.  Statement of Legislative Purpose; New Sentencing Calculations Needed  §1.6

b.  Division of Sentences Into Three Terms  §1.7

c.  Consideration of Other Counts, Enhancements, and Time Served  §1.8

d.  Changes to Sentencing Structure by Court Rules  §1.9

e.  On-the-Record Statement of Sentencing Choices  §1.10

f.  New Parole Process  §1.11

3.  Phase Two: Legislative Interventions

a.  Background  §1.12

b.  Sentence Increases for Violent or Serious Offenses  §1.13

c.  Probation Restrictions; Importance of Tanner Decision

(1)  Probation Restrictions and Prelude to Tanner  §1.14

(2)  Importance of Tanner Decision  §1.15

4.  Phase Three: State Initiatives, Related Legislation, and Court Action

a.  Background  §1.16

b.  Proposition 8

(1)  Passage of Proposition 8  §1.17

(2)  Treatment of Prior Convictions Under Proposition 8  §1.18

c.  Three Strikes Law and Sentencing Legislation

(1)  Passage of Three Strikes Ballot Initiative and Other Legislation  §1.19

(2)  Court Treatment of Strike Sentencing  §1.20

5.  Phase Four: Court Rulings on “Aggravating” Sentences, Cunningham Decision, and Legislative Response  §1.21

6.  Phase Five: The Criminal Justice Realignment Act of 2011  §1.21A

II.  CURRENT OPERATION OF DETERMINATE SENTENCING LAW

A.  DSL Sentencing Process Summarized  §1.22

B.  Determining Eligibility for Probation  §1.23

C.  Selecting Base Term

1.  Mandatory Selection of Base Term  §1.24

2.  Factors in Selecting Base Term  §1.25

D.  Treatment of Multiple Counts

1.  Rule Against Multiple Punishment Under Pen C §654  §1.26

2.  Presumption of Concurrent Sentences and Rules for Consecutive Sentences  §1.27

E.  Adding Enhancements  §1.28

F.  Applying Penal Code §1170(h)  §1.28A

G.  Finishing the Sentence  §1.29

H.  Application of Alternative Sentencing Requirements

1.  Background  §1.30

2.  Specific Sentencing Schemes

a.  Indeterminate Sentencing Law  §1.31

b.  Strike Law

(1)  When Strike Law Applies  §1.32

(2)  Interplay of Strike Law With Enhancements for Particular Offenses

(a)  One Strike Sex Sentencing Law  §1.33

(b)  Sexual Offense With Prior Conviction  §1.34

(c)  Habitual Sex Offender  §1.35

(d)  Habitual Offenders Who Cause Great Bodily Injury  §1.36

(e)  Drug Trafficking Involving Minors  §1.37

c.  Street Gang Enhancements  §1.38

d.  Application of Other Sentencing Schemes  §1.39

I.  Examples of Sentencing Calculations Under DSL  §1.40

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2

Enhancements Overview

Hon. Philip Pennypacker
William R. Bennett

I.  ENHANCEMENTS IN CONTEXT OF DETERMINATE SENTENCING LAW  §2.1

II.  COURT USE OF TERM “ENHANCEMENT” AND TYPES OF ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Court Use of Term “Enhancement”  §2.2

B.  Types of Sentence Enhancements  §2.3

III.  FREQUENTLY ENCOUNTERED ISSUES REGARDING ENHANCEMENTS

A.  New Crime Versus Longer Prison Term; Due Process  §2.4

B.  Aggravating Factors and Enhancements Distinguished  §2.5

C.  Alternative Sentencing Schemes and Enhancements Distinguished  §2.6

D.  Need for Pleading and Proof of Enhancements  §2.7

E.  Burden of Proof for Enhancements at Preliminary Examinations and Trials  §2.8

F.  Prohibition on Use of Facts Supporting Enhancement to Also Aggravate Sentence  §2.9

G.  Imposition of Two Enhancements on Single Substantive Crime  §2.10

H.  Imposition of Enhancement Sentences  §2.11

I.  Trial Court’s Authority to Strike Enhancements or Associated Punishment  §2.12

J.  Example of Multiple Counts With Conduct Enhancements Associated With Each Count  §2.13

IV.  CHECKLIST OF SPECIFIC CONDUCT ENHANCEMENTS  §2.14

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3

Victims

Hon. Kenneth L. Shapero

I.  CHART: VICTIM ENHANCEMENTS  §3.1

II.  PURPOSE OF VICTIM-RELATED ENHANCEMENTS  §3.2

III.  AGED, UNDER AGE, OR DISABLED VICTIMS

A.  Particularly Vulnerable Victims (Pen C §667.9)  §3.3

B.  Elements of Enhancements and Definitions

1.  Specified Offense Upon Specified Victim (Pen C §667.9(a))  §3.4

2.  Specified Offense With Specified Prior Upon Specified Victim (Pen C §667.9(b))  §3.5

C.  Punishment

1.  Specified Offense Upon Specified Victim (Pen C §667.9(a))  §3.6

2.  Specified Offense With Specified Prior Upon Specified Victim (Pen C §667.9(b))  §3.7

D.  Imposition Rules

1.  Pleading and Proof  §3.8

2.  Standard of Proof  §3.9

3.  Operation With Determinate Sentencing Law  §3.10

a.  Calculation of Term  §3.11

b.  Cunningham and Apprendi  §3.12

c.  Multiple Counts  §3.13

4.  Multiple Victims  §3.14

5.  Dual Use of Facts  §3.15

6.  Operation With Pen C §654  §3.16

7.  Operation With Indeterminate Sentencing  §3.17

8.  Operation With Other Enhancements  §3.18

9.  Operation With Three Strikes Law  §3.19

10.  Operation With the Criminal Justice Realignment Act of 2011  §3.19A

11.  Court’s Authority to Strike the Punishment or the Enhancement  §3.20

12.  Stipulated Sentence  §3.21

IV.  HATE CRIME ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Legislative Purpose  §3.22

B.  Elements of Enhancements and Definitions

1.  Hate Crime (Pen C §422.75(a))  §3.23

2.  Hate Crime in Concert (Pen C §422.75(b))  §3.24

3.  Hate Crime With Prior Hate Crime (Pen C §422.75(d))  §3.25

C.  Punishment

1.  Hate Crime (Pen C §422.75(a))  §3.26

2.  Hate Crime in Concert (Pen C §422.75(b))  §3.27

3.  Hate Crime With Prior Hate Crime (Pen C §422.75(d))  §3.28

D.  Imposition Rules

1.  Pleading and Proof  §3.29

2.  Standard of Proof  §3.30

E.  Term Imposition

1.  Operation With Determinate Sentencing  §3.31

a.  Selection and Calculation of Term  §3.32

b.  Cunningham and Apprendi  §3.33

c.  Multiple Counts  §3.34

d.  Multiple Victims  §3.35

e.  Dual Use of Facts  §3.36

f.  Operation With Pen C §654  §3.37

2.  Operation With Indeterminate Sentencing  §3.38

3.  Operation With Other Enhancements  §3.39

4.  Operation With Three Strikes Law  §3.40

5.  Operation With the Criminal Justice Realignment Act of 2011  §3.40A

6.  Court’s Authority to Strike the Punishment or Enhancement  §3.41

7.  Stipulated Sentence  §3.42

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4

Injury and Death

Nancy Brewer
James P. Lambe

I.  CHART: GBI AND DEATH ENHANCEMENTS  §4.1

II.  EFFECT OF GREAT BODILY INJURY ENHANCEMENTS  §4.2

A.  Definitions

1.  Great Bodily Injury  §4.3

2.  Relationship to Serious Bodily Injury  §4.4

3.  Comatose  §4.5

4.  To Inflict  §4.6

5.  Personal Infliction  §4.7

6.  Other Than Accomplice  §4.8

7.  During Commission of Felony  §4.9

8.  Age  §4.10

B.  Application

1.  Element of the Underlying Offense  §4.11

2.  Allegation in Charging Document  §4.12

3.  Specific Offenses: Homicide, Manslaughter  §4.13

4.  Pregnancy  §4.14

5.  Battery With Serious Bodily Injury  §4.15

6.  Driving Offenses  §4.16

C.  Intent Requirements  §4.17

D.  Sentencing Issues

1.  Pleaded and Proved  §4.18

2.  Shown by Evidence at Preliminary Hearing or Grand Jury Proceeding  §4.19

E.  Imposition of Enhancement Sentence

1.  Authority to Stay or Strike  §4.20

2.  Probation Eligibility  §4.21

3.  Operation With Other Enhancements  §4.22

4.  When the Enhancement Is Attached to a Subordinate Term  §4.23

5.  Operation With Penal Code §654  §4.24

6.  Dual Use of Facts  §4.25

7.  Credit Issues  §4.26

8.  Credits Under Pen C §2933.1  §4.27

9.  When There Is a Strike Prior  §4.28

10.  When a Three Strikes Life Sentence Is Imposed  §4.29

11.  Future Consequences  §4.30

F.  Juvenile Adjudication Issues  §4.31

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5

Firearms and Other Dangerous Weapons

Robyn L. Chew
Steven I. Katz

I.  CHART: FIREARM ENHANCEMENTS  §5.1

II.  PURPOSE OF FIREARM ENHANCEMENTS  §5.2

III.  PRINCIPLES APPLICABLE TO ALL FIREARM ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Pleading and Proof

1.  Pleading  §5.3

2.  Proof of Firearm  §5.4

B.  Application to Juveniles  §5.5

C.  Sentencing  §5.6

IV.  ENHANCEMENTS FOR BEING ARMED WITH FIREARM

A.  Definitions  §5.7

B.  Liability  §5.8

C.  Application  §5.9

D.  Sentencing  §5.10

E.  Consequences of a True Finding  §5.11

F.  Armed During Felony (Pen C §12022(a)(1))  §5.12

G.  Armed With Assault Weapon During Felony (Pen C §12022(a)(2))  §5.13

V.  ENHANCEMENTS FOR USE OF FIREARM

A.  Definitions  §5.14

B.  Intent  §5.15

C.  Liability  §5.16

D.  Sentencing  §5.17

E.  Consequence of True Finding  §5.18

F.  Personal Use During Any Felony (Pen C §12022.5)  §5.19

G.  Personal Use During Specified Violent Felonies: 10–20-Life Enhancement (Pen C §12022.53)  §5.20

1.  Personal Use (Pen C §12022.53(b))  §5.21

2.  Intentional Discharge and Great Bodily Injury (Pen C §12022.53(c)–(d))  §5.22

a.  Intent  §5.23

b.  Proximately Causing Injury or Death  §5.24

c.  Sentencing  §5.25

VI.  FIREARM ENHANCEMENTS FOR STREET GANGS  §5.26

VII.  FIREARM ENHANCEMENTS FOR DRUG OFFENSES

A.  Armed During Specified Drug Offenses (Pen C §12022(c)–(d))  §5.27

B.  Personal Use During Felony Drug Offense (Pen C §12022.5)  §5.28

VIII.  FIREARM ENHANCEMENTS FOR SEX OFFENSES

A.  Armed With or Use of Firearm or Deadly Weapon During Specified Sex Offenses (Pen C §12022.3)  §5.29

B.  Personal Use During Specified Sex Offenses: 10–20-Life Enhancements (Pen C §12022.53)  §5.30

C.  Alternative Sentencing Provision (Pen C §667.61)  §5.31

IX.  FIREARM ENHANCEMENTS FOR MOTOR VEHICLES  §5.32

X.  MISCELLANEOUS FIREARM ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Furnishing a Firearm (Pen C §12022.4)  §5.33

B.  Transfer of Firearm (Pen C §27590(d))  §5.34

C.  Transfer of Assault Weapons; Commission of Crime (Pen C §30600(b)/Pen C §30615)  §5.35

D.  Possession of Ammunition to Penetrate Vests; Wearing Body Vest  §5.36

XI.  CHART: DANGEROUS/DEADLY WEAPON ENHANCEMENTS  §5.37

XII.  DANGEROUS OR DEADLY WEAPON ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Pleading and Proof  §5.38

B.  Definition of Dangerous or Deadly Weapon  §5.39

1.  Dangerous or Deadly Per Se  §5.40

2.  Insufficient Evidence of Dangerous or Deadly  §5.41

3.  “Dangerous or Deadly” Under Pen C §12022(b)  §5.42

4.  “Deadly” Under Pen C §245(a)(1)  §5.43

C.  Sentencing  §5.44

D.  Personal Use of Deadly Weapon (Pen C §12022(b))  §5.45

E.  Armed With or Use of Deadly Weapon During Specified Sex Offenses (Pen C §12022.3(a)–(b))  §5.46

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6

Other Instruments of Injury or Death

Robyn L. Chew
Steven I. Katz

I.  CHART: APPLICABLE ENHANCEMENTS  §6.1

II.  INSTRUMENTS DISTINCT FROM DANGEROUS OR DEADLY WEAPONS  §6.2

III.  POISON AND HARMFUL SUBSTANCES

A.  Use of Poison as Substantive Offense and Enhancement  §6.3

B.  Use of Poison to Commit Murder: Factor in Aggravation, Special Circumstance  §6.4

IV.  CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES

A.  Administering as Substantive Offense  §6.5

B.  Administering as Enhancement  §6.6

C.  Administering to Perpetrate Specified Sexual Assault Offenses: One Strike Alternative Sentencing Scheme  §6.7

D.  Furnishing as Basis for Felony-Murder Rule  §6.8

V.  FIRE AND ARSON ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Purpose  §6.9

B.  Major Statutes  §6.10

1.  Definitions  §6.11

2.  Application  §6.12

3.  Sentencing  §6.13

4.  Postconviction Consequences  §6.14

VI.  FIRE AND ARSON ALTERNATIVE SENTENCING SCHEME  §6.14A

VII.  ARSON AS MEANS TO COMMIT MURDER: FACTOR IN AGGRAVATION, SPECIAL CIRCUMSTANCE  §6.15

VIII.  EXPLOSIVES, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION

A.  Purpose  §6.16

B.  Definitions  §6.17

C.  Destructive Devices and Explosives as Bases for Substantive Offenses

1.  Possession, Sale, and Transportation of Destructive Devices or Explosives  §6.18

2.  Aggravated Possession of Destructive Devices or Explosives  §6.19

3.  Use of Destructive Devices or Explosives  §6.20

4.  Postconviction Consequences  §6.21

IX.  CAUSING DEATH THROUGH USE OF DESTRUCTIVE DEVICE OR EXPLOSION

A.  As a Substantive Charge  §6.22

B.  As a Circumstance in Support of Murder Charges  §6.23

C.  Punishment on Conviction for Both Offenses  §6.24

X.  WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION AND RESTRICTED BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

A.  Substantive Offenses  §6.25

B.  Postconviction Consequences  §6.26

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7

Gangs

Ronald J. Freitas

I.  CHART: GANG ENHANCEMENTS AND ALTERNATIVE SENTENCING SCHEMES  §7.1

II.  STREET TERRORISM ENFORCEMENT AND PREVENTION ACT (STEP ACT)

A.  Enactment and Constitutionality  §7.2

B.  Criminal Street Gang Defined  §7.3

1.  Common Name  §7.4

2.  Primary Activity  §7.5

3.  Pattern of Criminal Gang Activity

a.  Two or More Offenses  §7.6

b.  Committed on One or More Than One Occasion  §7.7

C.  Substantive Offenses

1.  Active Participation in Gang: Pen C §186.22(a)

a.  Elements  §7.8

b.  Evidence of Active Participation  §7.9

c.  Willfully Promotes, Furthers, or Assists Felonious Conduct of Gang  §7.10

d.  Punishment  §7.10A

2.  Conspiracy, and Soliciting, Furnishing, or Concealing Firearms  §7.11

D.  Conduct Enhancement (Pen Code §186.22(b))

1.  Enhancement Defined  §7.12

2.  Elements of Primary Gang Enhancement (Pen C §186.22(b)(1))  §7.13

a.  Any Person; Any Crime  §7.14

b.  For the Benefit of, at the Direction of, or in Association With Gang  §7.15

c.  Specific Intent to Promote, Further, or Assist in Any Criminal Conduct by Gang Members  §7.16

3.  Punishment  §7.17

a.  Pleading and Proof  §7.18

b.  Staying or Striking the Gang Enhancement  §7.19

c.  Multiple Enhancements  §7.20

E.  Alternative Penalty Provisions

1.  Offense Punishable as Felony or Misdemeanor (Pen C §186.22(d))  §7.21

2.  Enumerated Felonies With Minimum Indeterminate Terms: Pen C §186.22(b)(4)  §7.22

3.  Fifteen-Year Parole Eligibility: Pen C §186.22(b)(5)  §7.23

4.  Special Circumstance  §7.24

F.  Bifurcation From Underlying Charge  §7.25

G.  Juvenile Proceedings  §7.26

H.  Additional Sentencing Issues

1.  Asset Forfeiture  §7.27

2.  Registration  §7.28

3.  Probation Conditions  §7.29

4.  Restitution  §7.30

5.  Restitution and Parole Revocation Fines  §7.31

III.  EVIDENTIARY ISSUES

A.  Admissibility of Gang Evidence  §7.32

B.  Use of Expert Witnesses

1.  Qualification as Expert  §7.33

2.  Subject of Expert Testimony  §7.34

3.  Basis of Expert Opinion  §7.35

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8

Drugs

Hon. Kenneth L. Shapero

I.  CHART: CONTROLLED-SUBSTANCES ENHANCEMENTS  §8.1

II.  PURPOSE OF DRUG ENHANCEMENTS  §8.2

III.  CONDUCT ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Pleading and Proof  §8.3

B.  Term Imposition

1.  Operation With Determinate Sentencing

a.  Enhancements Must Be Imposed Consecutively to Base Term  §8.4

b.  Selection of Enhancement and Calculation of Term  §8.5

c.  Cunningham and Apprendi Considerations  §8.6

d.  Multiple Counts  §8.7

2.  Operation With Indeterminate Sentencing  §8.8

3.  Dual Use of Facts  §8.9

4.  Prohibition on Multiple Punishment for Same Act (Pen C §654)  §8.10

5.  Operation With Three Strikes Law  §8.11

6.  Operation With the Criminal Justice Realignment Act of 2011  §8.11A

7.  Court’s Authority to Strike Punishment or Enhancement  §8.12

C.  Specific Conduct Enhancements

1.  Trafficking in Heroin, Cocaine, Cocaine Base, Methamphetamine, or PCP Within 1000 Feet of Specified Facility (Health & S C §11380.7)  §8.13

2.  Manufacture of Methamphetamine or PCP in Presence of, or Causing GBI to, Minor Under 16 (Health & S C §11379.7)  §8.14

3.  Manufacture of Methamphetamine or PCP That Causes Death or GBI (Health & S C §11379.9)  §8.15

4.  Inducing Another to Commit Crime With Value of Controlled Substance Over $500,000 (Health & S C §11356.5)  §8.16

5.  Inducing Minor to Violate Narcotics Law (Health & S C §11353.1)  §8.17

6.  Inducing Minor to Violate Narcotics Law (Health & S C §11380.1)  §8.18

7.  Trafficking Within 1000 Feet of School (Health & S C §11353.6)  §8.19

8.  Quantity Enhancements

a.  Possession for Sale, Sale, or Transportation (Health & S C §11370.4)  §8.20

b.  Manufacture of Controlled Substance by Chemical Extraction or Synthesis (Health & S C §11379.8)  §8.21

IV.  STATUS ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Overview  §8.22

B.  Elements of Status Enhancements

1.  Prior Inducing a Minor (Health & S C §11353.4)  §8.23

2.  Prior Sale or Manufacture (Health & S C §11370.2)  §8.24

C.  Pleading and Proof

1.  Pleading  §8.25

2.  Proof  §8.26

D.  Term Imposition

1.  Operation With Determinate Sentencing  §8.27

2.  Selection and Calculation of Term  §8.28

3.  Prohibition on Multiple Punishment for Same Act (Pen C §654)  §8.29

4.  Operation With Indeterminate Sentencing  §8.30

5.  Court’s Authority to Strike Punishment or Enhancement  §8.31

6.  Stipulated Sentence  §8.32

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9

DUI

Matthew C. Braner

I.  CHART: DUI-RELATED ENHANCEMENTS  §9.1

II.  HOW DUIs ENHANCE SENTENCES  §9.2

III.  EFFECT OF DUI PRIOR ON CURRENT DUI OFFENSE

A.  DUI Offenses Subject to Increased Penalty for Prior DUI  §9.3

B.  Prior DUI Convictions That Will Enhance Current Offense

1.  Qualifying Priors That Enhance Current Misdemeanor Offense  §9.4

2.  Prior Felony Convictions That Elevate Current DUI Offense to Felony  §9.5

C.  Special Criteria Concerning Prior Convictions

1.  Prior Offense Must Have Been Committed Within 10 Years of Current Offense  §9.6

2.  Prior May Have Been Committed After Current Offense  §9.7

3.  Sentencing Court May Not Strike DUI Priors  §9.8

D.  Effect of DUI Prior on Punishment for Simple DUI Under Veh C §23152

1.  Punishment Under Veh C §23152 With No Prior DUI  §9.9

a.  Without Probation  §9.10

b.  With Probation  §9.11

2.  Punishment Under Veh C §23152 With One Prior DUI  §9.12

a.  Without Probation  §9.13

b.  With Probation  §9.14

3.  Punishment Under Veh C §23152 With Two Prior DUI Convictions  §9.15

a.  Without Probation  §9.16

b.  With Probation  §9.17

E.  Effect of DUI Prior on Punishment for DUI With Injury Under Veh C §23153

1.  Compared to Simple DUI Under Veh C §23152  §9.18

2.  Punishment Under Veh C §23153 With No Prior DUI

a.  Without Probation  §9.19

b.  With Probation  §9.20

3.  Punishment Under Veh C §23153 With One Prior DUI

a.  Without Probation  §9.21

b.  With Probation  §9.22

4.  Punishment Under Veh C §21253 With Two or More Prior DUI Convictions

a.  Without Probation  §9.23

b.  With Probation  §9.24

F.  Priors That Elevate Current DUI Offense to Felony

1.  Three or More Prior DUI Convictions Under Veh C §23152  §9.25

2.  Prior DUI-Related Felony Convictions Enumerated in Veh C §23550.5  §9.26

IV.  DUI-RELATED FELONY CONVICTIONS THAT QUALIFY AS STRIKE PRIORS UNDER THREE STRIKES LAW  §9.27

V.  USE OF PRIOR DUI CONVICTION TO ESTABLISH IMPLIED MALICE FOR MURDER CHARGE  §9.28

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10

Kidnapping, Robbery, and Carjacking

Robyn L. Chew
Steven I. Katz

I.  CHART: KIDNAPPING, ROBBERY, CARJACKING, AND GENERALLY APPLICABLE ENHANCEMENTS  §10.1

II.  KIDNAPPING

A.  Differing Treatment of Kidnapping as Enhancement or Underlying Offense  §10.2

B.  Enhancing Underlying Offenses if Kidnapping Involved

1.  Determinate Term Enhancements for Sexual Offenses During Kidnapping (Pen C §667.8)

a.  Enhancements Without Reference to Victim’s Age (Pen C §667.8(a))  §10.3

b.  Enhancements if Victim Under 14 (Pen C §667.8(b))  §10.4

c.  Application of Enhancements Under Pen C §667.8

(1)  Enhancement Applies Even Without Kidnapping Conviction  §10.5

(2)  No Dual Use of Enhancement  §10.6

(3)  Inapplicability to Attempts  §10.7

(4)  Number of Enhancements per Kidnapping Incident  §10.8

(5)  Mandatory Imposition of Punishment  §10.9

2.  “One Strike” (Indeterminate) Sentencing (Pen C §667.61)  §10.10

C.  Enhancements and Other Sentencing Issues if Kidnapping Charged as Primary Offense

1.  General Sentencing Provisions  §10.11

2.  Purpose of Kidnapping and Asportation of Victim

a.  Purpose of Kidnapping and Minors  §10.12

b.  Taking Victim Out of State  §10.13

c.  Asportation as Substitute for Force in Certain Cases  §10.14

d.  Enticing Victim to Leave Area  §10.15

e.  Bringing Victim Into California  §10.16

3.  Sentences for Specific Kidnapping Offenses

a.  Kidnapping for Ransom  §10.17

b.  Kidnapping for Robbery, Carjacking, or Sexual Assault  §10.18

4.  Special Rules for Habitual Sexual Offenders Who Commit Kidnapping  §10.19

5.  Separate Convictions for Kidnapping and Related Theft Crimes Committed Together  §10.20

6.  Probation and Multiple Counts in Kidnapping Cases

a.  Limitations on Probation  §10.21

b.  Multiple Counts  §10.22

7.  Special Rules for Kidnapping Sentences if Victim Is Minor, Elderly, or Disabled

a.  Minors as Kidnap Victims

(1)  General Sentencing Provisions When Victim Is Minor  §10.23

(2)  Minors Under Age 14

(a)  Kidnapping Circumstances Determine Charge and Sentencing Scheme  §10.24

(b)  Sentencing Choices if Victim Under Age 14  §10.25

(c)  Kidnapping Child to Deprive Parent or Guardian of Custody (Pen C §667.85)  §10.26

b.  Elderly, Disabled, or Other Vulnerable Victims (Pen C §667.9(a)–(b))  §10.27

III.  ROBBERY AND CARJACKING

A.  Robbery and Carjacking as Enhancements  §10.28

B.  Robbery or Carjacking as Underlying Charge

1.  Basic Sentences for Robbery  §10.29

2.  Basic Sentences for Carjacking  §10.30

3.  Enhancements to Underlying Charge of Robbery and Carjacking

a.  Enhancements Summarized  §10.31

b.  Use of Firearms and Other Dangerous or Deadly Weapons

(1)  Firearms

(a)  Firearm Enhancements to Underlying Robbery or Carjacking Offenses  §10.32

(b)  Special Issues Regarding Firearms

(i)  Firearm Includes Handgun  §10.33

(ii)  What Constitutes “Discharge” of Firearm  §10.34

(iii)  Establishing Firearm Use if Firearm Not Recovered or Seen  §10.35

(2)  Other Deadly or Dangerous Weapons  §10.36

(3)  Sentencing Issues in Specific Factual Situations Involving Weapon Use

(a)  Victim Lacked Physical Possession of or Close Proximity to Property Stolen  §10.37

(b)  Defendant Fired Weapon in Response to Being Followed by Victim  §10.38

c.  Great Bodily Injury  §10.39

d.  Gang Involvement  §10.40

e.  Minor, Elderly, or Disabled Victims  §10.41

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11

Sex Crimes

Catherine Stephenson

I.  CHART: SEX CRIME ENHANCEMENTS AND ALTERNATIVE SENTENCING SCHEMES  §11.1

II.  RULES RELATED TO ENHANCEMENTS  §11.2

III.  ENHANCEMENTS WITH DETERMINATE SENTENCES

A.  Conduct-Based Enhancements  §11.3

1.  Fleeing to This State to Avoid Prosecution or Custody (Pen C §289.5(d))  §11.4

2.  Kidnapping With Intent to Commit Sex Offense (Pen C §667.8(a)–(b))  §11.5

3.  Young, Old, or Disabled Victims (Pen C §667.9(a)–(b))  §11.6

4.  Exhibiting Sexually Explicit Material to Minor During Crime of Child Molestation (Pen C §667.15)  §11.7

5.  Defendant Is Primary Caregiver for Minor Victim (Pen C §674)  §11.8

6.  Sexual Assault With Minor for Money or Other Consideration (Pen C §675)  §11.9

7.  Personal Use of or Arming With Firearm or Deadly Weapon (Pen C §12022.3(a)–(b))  §11.10

8.  “10–20-Life” Firearm-Use Enhancement (Pen C §12022.53)  §11.11

9.  Administration of Controlled Substance to Victim During Commission of Sex Crime (Pen C §12022.75(b))  §11.12

10.  Personal Infliction of Great Bodily Injury (Pen C §12022.8)  §11.13

11.  Sex Crime Committed by Defendant Who Has AIDS or Is HIV Positive (Pen C §12022.85)  §11.14

12.  Personal and Intentional Infliction of Injury Resulting in Termination of Pregnancy (Pen C §12022.9)  §11.15

B.  Offender-Based Enhancements  §11.16

1.  Contacting Minor With Intent to Commit Sex Crime With Prior Conviction (Pen C §288.3(c))  §11.17

2.  Prior Sexual Assault Conviction (Pen C §667.6(a))  §11.18

3.  Prior Prison Terms for Sex Offenses (Pen C §667.6(b))  §11.19

4.  Prior Pen C §289 Conviction and Current Pen C §289 Crime (Pen C §667.10)  §11.20

5.  Prior Sex Offense and Current Pen C §288 or §288.5 Offense (Pen C §667.51(a))  §11.21

IV.  INDETERMINATE SENTENCES  §11.22

A.  Current Sex Offense and Two or More Convictions for Sex Offenses (Pen C §667.51(c))  §11.23

B.  One Strike (Pen C §667.61)

1.  Overview  §11.24

2.  Trial Considerations

a.  One Strike Factors Under Pen C §667.61(d)  §11.25

b.  One Strike Factors Under Pen C §667.61(e)  §11.26

3.  Imposition of One Strike Penalty

a.  Current Law, Effective September 9, 2010  §11.27

b.  Law Between September 20, 2006, and September 9, 2010  §11.28

c.  Law Before September 20, 2006  §11.29

C.  Habitual Sexual Offender (Pen C §667.71)  §11.30

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12

Property Loss, Money Laundering, and Fraud

Michael Begovich

I.  CHART: ENHANCEMENTS RELATED TO PROPERTY LOSS, MONEY LAUNDERING, AND FRAUD  §12.1

II.  STRATEGY FOR CASES INVOLVING SIGNIFICANT PROPERTY LOSS, MONEY LAUNDERING, OR FRAUD  §12.2

III.  ENHANCEMENT WHEN PROPERTY IS TAKEN, DAMAGED, OR DESTROYED IN COMMISSION OR ATTEMPTED COMMISSION OF FELONY (PEN C §12022.6(a))

A.  Terms and Elements of Enhancement  §12.3

B.  Pleading and Proof Requirements  §12.4

C.  Application

1.  General Rules  §12.5

2.  Multiple Charges Arising From Common Scheme or Plan  §12.6

3.  Computer-Related Loss  §12.7

4.  Operation of Three Strikes Law  §12.8

5.  Operation of Pen C §654  §12.9

D.  Authority to Dismiss, Strike, or Stay  §12.10

IV.  MONEY LAUNDERING ENHANCEMENT (PEN C §186.10(c))

A.  Terms of Enhancement  §12.11

B.  Application of Enhancement

1.  General Rules  §12.12

2.  Multiple Charges Arising From Common Scheme or Plan  §12.13

3.  Application to Conspiracy to Commit Money Laundering (Pen C §182)  §12.14

4.  Pleading and Proof Requirements  §12.15

5.  Operation With Three Strikes Law  §12.16

6.  Operation With Pen C §654  §12.17

C.  Authority to Dismiss, Strike, or Stay  §12.18

V.  FRAUD-RELATED ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Aggravated White-Collar Crime (Pen C §186.11(a))  §12.19

B.  Insurance Fraud

1.  Property Insurance Fraud—Prior Conviction (Pen C §548(b))  §12.20

2.  Unlawful Acts Related to Fraudulent Insurance Claims—Prior Conviction (Pen C §550(e)–(g))  §12.21

C.  Workers’ Compensation Fraud

1.  Fraud Related to Workers’ Compensation Claim—Prior Conviction (Ins C §1871.4(c))  §12.22

2.  Fraud for Purpose of Reducing Costs of Workers’ Compensation Insurance—Prior Conviction (Ins C §11760(b))  §12.23

3.  Fraud for Purpose of Reducing Costs of Workers’ Compensation Insurance From State Compensation Insurance Fund—Prior Conviction (Ins C §11880(b))  §12.24

D.  Natural Disaster Fraud

1.  Fraud Related to Natural Disaster Damage Repair (Pen C §667.16(a)–(b))  §12.25

2.  Scheme to Defraud in Connection With Natural Disaster Damage Repair (Pen C §670(c))  §12.26

E.  Food Stamp Fraud by Electronic Transfer (Welf & I C §10980(h))  §12.27

F.  Medi-Cal Fraud (Welf & I C §14107(d))  §12.28

G.  Impersonation of Peace Officer (Pen C §667.17)  §12.29

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13

Increased Punishment for Prior Similar Offenses

Nancy Brewer
James P. Lambe

I.  COMMON OFFENSES FOR WHICH PUNISHMENT INCREASES WITH A SIMILAR PRIOR  §13.1

II.  ELEMENT, ENHANCEMENT, OR ALTERNATIVE SENTENCING SCHEME?

A.  Concepts and Definitions  §13.2

B.  Analysis  §13.3

C.  Dual Use of Facts  §13.4

III.  DOES JURY HAVE RIGHT TO KNOW ABOUT PRIOR CONVICTION?  §13.5

IV.  MUST PRIOR CONVICTION BE PLEADED AND PROVED?  §13.6

V.  ATTEMPT TO COMMIT A VIOLATION OF PEN C §666 OR §666.5  §13.7

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14

Felony Committed While Released on Bail or Own Recognizance

Michael Begovich

I.  CHART: ENHANCEMENT FOR FELONY COMMITTED WHILE RELEASED ON BAIL OR OWN RECOGNIZANCE  §14.1

II.  PURPOSE OF ENHANCEMENT  §14.2

III.  DEFINITIONS

A.  Primary Offense  §14.3

B.  Secondary Offense  §14.4

IV.  CUSTODY STATUS  §14.5

A.  Bail  §14.6

B.  Release on Own Recognizance (OR)  §14.7

C.  Client Introduction Letter: Communication Regarding Pen C §12022.1(b) Enhancement  §14.8

V.  PLEADING AND PROOF REQUIREMENTS

A.  Overview  §14.9

B.  Proof at Preliminary Hearing  §14.10

C.  Proof at Trial  §14.11

VI.  RULES GOVERNING IMPOSITION OF ENHANCEMENT

A.  Imposition of Enhancement Under AB 109  §14.11A

B.  Imposition of Enhancement When Prison Sentences Imposed for Primary and Secondary Offenses (Pen C §12022.1(e))  §14.12

C.  Imposition of Enhancement When Probation Granted for Primary Offense (Pen C §12022.1(f))  §14.13

D.  Stay of Enhancement Pending Imposition of Sentence for Primary Offense (Pen C §12022.1(d))  §14.14

E.  Suspension of Enhancement Pending Retrial of Primary Offense (Pen C §12022.1(g))  §14.15

F.  Imposition of Multiple Enhancements  §14.16

G.  Operation of Enhancement With Determination of Principal and Subordinate Terms Under Pen C §1170.1  §14.17

H.  Operation of Enhancement With Pen C §654  §14.18

I.  Operation of Enhancement With Three Strikes Law  §14.19

J.  Application of Enhancement to Aiders and Abettors of Secondary Offense  §14.20

K.  Application of Enhancement to Juveniles  §14.21

L.  Application of Enhancement to Attempted Crimes  §14.22

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15

Prior Prison Commitments and Serious and Violent Felonies

Michael Ogul

I.  CHART: PRIOR PRISON COMMITMENTS AND SERIOUS- AND VIOLENT-FELONY ENHANCEMENTS  §15.1

II.  USE OF PRIOR CONVICTIONS  §15.2

III.  PROCEDURAL ISSUES

A.  Timing of Prior Conviction for Use as Enhancement or Strike  §15.3

B.  Treatment of Foreign Priors and Juvenile Adjudications

1.  Foreign Priors  §15.4

2.  Illustration: Federal Bank Robbery  §15.5

3.  Prior Juvenile Adjudications and Adult Court Convictions of Minors in General  §15.6

C.  Admissions of Prior Convictions (Pen C §1025)  §15.7

D.  Unitary or Bifurcated Trial on Prior Convictions  §15.8

E.  Allocation of Issues Between Jury and Court  §15.9

F.  Admissibility of Rap Sheets to Prove Prior Convictions  §15.10

IV.  PRIOR-CONVICTION SENTENCING ENHANCEMENTS

A.  Prior Serious-Felony Conviction (Pen C §667(a))

1.  Definition of Serious Felony  §15.11

2.  “Separately Brought and Tried” Requirement  §15.12

3.  Determining Whether Prior Qualifies as Serious Felony: Record-of-Conviction Test  §15.13

4.  Documents That Qualify as Part of Record of Conviction  §15.14

5.  Admissible Contents of Documents That Are Part of Record of Conviction  §15.15

6.  Illustrations of Convictions Qualifying as Serious Felonies

a.  Priors Involving Deadly Weapons  §15.16

b.  Priors Involving Great Bodily Injury  §15.17

c.  First-Degree Burglary  §15.18

d.  Gang Offenses  §15.19

7.  Enhancement Cannot Be Stricken Pursuant to Pen C §1385  §15.20

B.  Enhancements for Prior Sex Offense Convictions

1.  Five- or 10-Year Enhancement Under Pen C §667.6  §15.21

2.  Requirement of Separately Served Terms  §15.22

3.  Court May Strike Enhancement  §15.23

C.  Enhancements for Prior Drug Offense Convictions

1.  Three-Year Enhancement Under Health & S C §11370.2  §15.24

2.  Dual Enhancements for Same Prior Drug Conviction  §15.25

3.  Prohibition on Probation Under Pen C §1203.07(a)(11)  §15.26

V.  PRIOR-PRISON-COMMITMENT ENHANCEMENTS

A.  One-Year or 3-Year Enhancements (Pen C §667.5(a)–(b))  §15.27

B.  Requirement of Prison Commitment  §15.28

C.  Requirement of Separately Served Prison Term  §15.29

D.  Washout Provision  §15.30

E.  Prohibition Against Dual Enhancements for Same Prior Conviction  §15.31

F.  Enhancement May Be Stricken Pursuant to Pen C §1385  §15.32

G.  Operation of Prior Serious-Felony Conviction Enhancements With Prior Violent-Felony Prison-Commitment Enhancements  §15.33

VI.  THREE STRIKES ALTERNATIVE SENTENCING PROVISION

A.  Strike Priors  §15.34

B.  Determination Made on Date of Initial Sentencing  §15.35

C.  Requirement That Prior Conviction Occurred Before Commission of Current Felony  §15.36

D.  No Requirement That Conviction Have Been Separately Brought or Tried  §15.37

E.  Dual Punishment Based on Single Strike Prior  §15.38

F.  Court’s Discretion to Dismiss Pursuant to Pen C §1385  §15.39

G.  Juvenile Adjudications as Strike Priors  §15.40

H.  Out-of-State and Federal Convictions as Strike Priors  §15.41

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