California Juvenile Dependency Practice

Chapter Outlines

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

1

Introduction to Dependency Law

Christopher N. Wu

I.  INTRODUCTION TO THE MODERN ERA OF DEPENDENCY LAW  §1.1

A.  1974 and 1980: CAPTA and Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 (Pub L 96–272)  §1.2

B.  1987: Senate Bill 243  §1.3

C.  1995: Rule 39.1B Writ (Now Rule 8.452)  §1.4

D.  1997: Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 (Pub L 105–89)  §1.5

E.  2008: The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 (Pub L 110–351)  §1.6

F.  New Developments: Realignment and Katie A.  §1.6A

II.  EXAMINING THE PRESENT AND LOOKING TOWARD THE FUTURE

A.  Assessments of Child Welfare and Court Activities

1.  Child and Family Services Reviews  §1.7

2.  Child Welfare System Improvement and Accountability Act of 2001  §1.8

3.  Pew Commission on Children in Foster Care and National Judicial Summits  §1.9

4.  California Blue Ribbon Commission on Children in Foster Care  §1.10

5.  Assembly Select Committee on Foster Care and California Child Welfare Council  §1.11

B.  Judicial Focus on Dependency Law and Practice

1.  National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges  §1.12

2.  State Court Improvement Program  §1.13

3.  Center for Families, Children & the Courts  §1.14

4.  Unified Family Court  §1.15

5.  Judicial Branch Budget Cuts  §1.15A

C.  Changes in Dependency Practice

1.  Nearly Universal Legal Representation for Parents and Children  §1.16

2.  Ethical Considerations for Child’s Attorney  §1.17

3.  Child Welfare Law Specialist Certification  §1.18

4.  New Resources for Attorneys Representing Parents and Children  §1.19

III.  CONCLUSION  §1.20

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2

How Children Enter the Dependency System: Referral, Investigation, and Detention

Hon. Amy M. Pellman

I.  HOW CHILDREN ENTER THE DEPENDENCY SYSTEM

A.  Goals of Dependency System  §2.1

B.  Reports of Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect  §2.2

1.  Permitted Reporters  §2.3

2.  Mandated Reporters  §2.4

3.  Hospitals  §2.5

4.  Application to Commence Proceedings  §2.6

C.  Social Worker’s Investigation  §2.7

1.  Emergency Investigation  §2.8

2.  All Investigations  §2.9

D.  Child Welfare Services  §2.10

E.  Social Worker’s Recommendation

1.  Child Welfare Services Not Required  §2.11

2.  Case Plan for Services  §2.12

3.  Recommendations Short of Removing Child From Home  §2.13

a.  When Petition May Not Be Necessary  §2.14

b.  Written Promise to Appear; Setting for Hearing  §2.15

c.  Informal Supervision  §2.16

II.  TEMPORARY CUSTODY  §2.17

A.  Services to Keep Child in Home  §2.18

B.  Who May Take Custody of Child

1.  Peace Officer  §2.19

2.  Social Worker  §2.20

3.  Hospital Hold  §2.21

4.  Need for Warrant  §2.22

5.  Need for Notice and Judicial Approval of Investigatory Medical Examination, Testing, or Treatment  §2.23

C.  Notice to Parents That Child Is in Custody  §2.24

1.  Parent’s Right to Have Phone Number  §2.25

2.  Child’s Right to Make Phone Calls  §2.26

D.  Immediate Investigation and Release  §2.27

1.  Release to Relative or Nonrelative Extended Family Member  §2.28

2.  Placement With Siblings  §2.29

E.  Time Limits on Custody  §2.30

III.  DETENTION (INITIAL) HEARING

A.  Setting Matter for Hearing  §2.31

B.  Notice of Hearing  §2.32

C.  Nature of Detention or Initial Hearing  §2.33

D.  Temporary Restraining Orders

1.  Ex Parte Orders  §2.34

2.  Orders After Notice and Hearing  §2.35

3.  Appeal  §2.36

4.  Records Search  §2.37

5.  Exclusion Order  §2.38

6.  Notice to Law Enforcement Agencies  §2.39

7.  Penalties for Violation  §2.40

E.  Judicial Officers

1.  Power of Referees and Commissioners

a.  Referees  §2.41

b.  Commissioners  §2.42

2.  Right to Review of Referee’s Order  §2.43

3.  Temporary Judges  §2.44

4.  Challenge to Judicial Officer  §2.45

F.  Venue  §2.46

G.  Right to Counsel

1.  Counsel for Parent  §2.47

2.  Counsel for Child  §2.48

3.  Counsel for Department  §2.49

H.  Parent’s Need for Guardian Ad Litem  §2.50

I.  Conduct of Detention Hearing

1.  Who May Be Present  §2.51

2.  Advisement of Rights  §2.52

3.  Securing Parent’s Mailing Address  §2.53

4.  Parentage Inquiry  §2.54

a.  Presumed Father  §2.55

b.  Biological Father  §2.56

c.  Alleged Parent  §2.57

5.  Health and Education Information  §2.58

6.  Indian Child Welfare Act Inquiry  §2.58A

J.  Requirements for Detention  §2.59

1.  Prima Facie Showing That Child Comes Within Welf & I C §300  §2.60

2.  Continuance in Parent’s Home Contrary to Child’s Welfare  §2.61

3.  Existence of Welf & I C §319(b)(1)–(4) Criteria  §2.62

K.  Presentation of Evidence  §2.63

1.  Department’s Evidence  §2.64

2.  Motions Akin to Demurrer  §2.65

3.  Evidence on Behalf of Parent or Child  §2.66

4.  Continuance  §2.67

5.  Child’s Testimony  §2.68

IV.  COURT’S FINDINGS AND ORDERS  §2.69

A.  Notice  §2.70

B.  Findings Required for Federal Funding  §2.71

C.  Dismissal or Release  §2.72

D.  Findings in Support of Detention  §2.73

E.  Child Welfare Services  §2.74

1.  Services When Child Ordered Detained  §2.75

2.  Time Limits for Services  §2.76

3.  Importance of Services  §2.77

4.  When Child Not Detained  §2.78

F.  Order for Placement

1.  Court’s Placement Alternatives in General  §2.79

2.  Relatives  §2.80

3.  Nonrelative Extended Family Member  §2.81

G.  Visitation  §2.82

H.  Other Placements  §2.83

I.  Setting Jurisdictional Hearing  §2.84

V.  REHEARING  §2.85

VI.  FORMS

A.  Form: Request for Restraining Order—Juvenile (Judicial Council Form JV-245)  §2.86

B.  Form: Restraining Order—Juvenile (CLETS—JUV) (Judicial Council Form JV-250)  §2.87

C.  Form: Application and Order for Reissuance of Request for Order or Restraining Order (Juvenile) or Order to Show Cause (Judicial Council Form FL-306/JV-251)  §2.88

D.  Form: Notification of Mailing Address (Judicial Council Form JV-140)  §2.89

E.  Form: Sample Paternity Questionnaire  §2.90

F.  Form: Statement Regarding Parentage (Juvenile Dependency) (Judicial Council Form JV-505)  §2.91

G.  Form: Your Child’s Health and Education Questionnaire (Juvenile Dependency) (Judicial Council Form JV-225)  §2.92

H.  Form: Continuance—Detention Hearing (Judicial Council Form JV-405)  §2.93

I.  Form: Findings and Orders After Detention Hearing (Welf & I C §319) (Judicial Council Form JV-410)  §2.94

J.  Form: Sibling Attachment: Contact and Placement (Judicial Council Form JV-403)  §2.95

VII.  CHART: CHRONOLOGY OF A DEPENDENCY PROCEEDING  §2.96

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3

Petition, Case Plan, Discovery, Subpoenas, and Pretrial Motions

Carmela F. Simoncini

I.  PETITION

A.  Purpose of Petition  §3.1

B.  Social Worker Files Petition  §3.2

C.  Application to Commence Proceedings  §3.3

D.  Contents of Petition (Welf & I C §332)

1.  Mandatory Judicial Council Forms  §3.4

2.  Basic Allegations  §3.5

3.  Verification  §3.6

E.  Legal Sufficiency of Petition (Welf & I C §300)  §3.7

1.  Physical Abuse (Welf & I C §300(a))  §3.8

2.  Serious Physical Harm or Illness (Welf & I C §300(b))  §3.9

3.  Serious Emotional Damage (Welf & I C §300(c))  §3.10

4.  Sexual Abuse (Welf & I C §300(d))  §3.11

5.  Severe Physical Abuse of Child Under Age 5 (Welf & I C §300(e))  §3.12

6.  Death of Another Child (Welf & I C §300(f))  §3.13

7.  No Provision for Support (Welf & I C §300(g))  §3.14

8.  Adoption (Welf & I C §300(h))  §3.15

9.  Cruelty (Welf & I C §300(i))  §3.16

10.  Abused or Neglected Sibling (Welf & I C §300(j))  §3.17

11.  If Petition Seeks to Deny Reunification  §3.18

F.  Notice of Hearing on Petition and Service

1.  Detention or Initial Hearing

a.  When Social Worker Gives Notice  §3.19

b.  When Court Clerk Issues Notice With Petition Attached  §3.19A

2.  Jurisdictional Hearing on Petition  §3.20

a.  Service of Notice and Petition  §3.21

b.  Service Methods  §3.22

c.  Presumed or Alleged Parents  §3.23

3.  Citation to Appear  §3.24

G.  Amending Petition  §3.25

II.  CASE PLAN

A.  Case Plan Goals  §3.26

B.  Case Plan Elements  §3.27

C.  Case Plan Deadline and Updates  §3.28

III.  PREHEARING DISCOVERY

A.  Importance of Discovery  §3.29

B.  Nature of Juvenile Dependency Discovery  §3.30

C.  Discovery Under Rule 5.546

1.  Discovery Without Request  §3.31

2.  Petitioner’s Duty to Disclose Favorable Evidence  §3.32

3.  Parent’s or Child’s Requested Discovery

a.  Items Listed in Cal Rules of Ct 5.546(d)  §3.33

b.  Additional Evidence and Information  §3.34

4.  Petitioner’s Request  §3.35

5.  Privilege or Good Cause Not to Disclose  §3.36

6.  Discovery Motions  §3.37

a.  When Time Is Short  §3.38

b.  Review of Court’s Discovery Order  §3.39

7.  Sanctions  §3.40

D.  Obtaining Information Under Specific Statutes

1.  Public Agency Records (Welf & I C §317(f))  §3.41

2.  Medical Records (Evid C §1158)  §3.42

3.  Mental Health Records (Welf & I C §5328(d))  §3.43

4.  Health Records for CASA (Welf & I C §107)  §3.44

5.  Child’s Release of Medical Information (CC §56.11)  §3.45

E.  Court’s Inherent Power to Order Discovery  §3.46

F.  Discovery Issues

1.  Signed Releases  §3.47

2.  Pending Parallel Proceedings  §3.48

3.  Other Requests for Juvenile Court Records  §3.49

4.  Applicability of Civil Discovery Act  §3.50

IV.  SUBPOENAS

A.  Subpoena and Subpoena Duces Tecum  §3.51

B.  Service  §3.52

C.  Introducing Subpoenaed Material Into Evidence  §3.53

V.  PRETRIAL MOTIONS  §3.54

A.  Motions to Continue  §3.55

1.  One-Day Continuance (Welf & I C §322)  §3.56

2.  Witness Availability (Welf & I C §354)  §3.57

3.  Other Continuances (Welf & I C §352)  §3.58

B.  Motion to Amend Petition  §3.59

C.  Motion to Appoint Experts

1.  Authority  §3.60

2.  Moving for Appointment of Expert  §3.61

D.  Motion for Change of Venue  §3.62

E.  Motion to Suppress Evidence  §3.63

F.  Demurrer  §3.64

1.  Authority  §3.65

2.  Procedure  §3.66

G.  Motion to Appoint Guardian Ad Litem

1.  For the Child  §3.67

2.  For the Parent  §3.68

H.  Request for Mediation  §3.69

VI.  FORMS

A.  Form: Application for Commencement of Juvenile Court Proceedings  §3.70

B.  Form: Application to Commence Proceedings by Affidavit and Decision by Social Worker (Judicial Council Form JV-210)  §3.71

C.  Form: Application to Review Decision by Social Worker Not to Commence Proceedings (Judicial Council Form JV-215)  §3.72

D.  Form: Continuance—General (Judicial Council Form JV-406)  §3.73

E.  Form: Juvenile Dependency Petition (Version One) (Welf & I C §300) (Judicial Council Form JV-100)  §3.74

F.  Form: Juvenile Dependency Petition (Version Two) (Welf & I C §300) (Judicial Council Form JV-110)  §3.75

G.  Form: Additional Children Attachment (Juvenile Dependency Petition) (Judicial Council Form JV-101(A))  §3.76

H.  Form: Letter Requesting Discovery  §3.77

I.  Form: Motion for Appointment of Expert  §3.78

J.  Form: Demurrer to Petition  §3.79

K.  Form: Order for Prisoner’s Appearance at Hearing Affecting Parental Rights (Judicial Council Form JV-450)  §3.80

L.  Form: Prisoner’s Statement Regarding Appearance at Hearing Affecting Parental Rights (Judicial Council Form JV-451)  §3.80A

M.  Form: Ex Parte Application for Order Shortening Time, and Order  §3.81

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4

Jurisdictional Hearing

Malvina E. J. Abbott
John E. Philips

I.  HEARING OVERVIEW

A.  Purpose of Jurisdictional Hearing  §4.1

B.  Legal Sufficiency of Petition  §4.2

C.  Pretrial Conferences or Hearings  §4.3

D.  When Hearing Will Be Held

1.  Setting Hearing Date  §4.4

2.  Continuance

a.  Requesting Continuance  §4.5

b.  When Continuance May Be Granted  §4.6

E.  Who May Attend Hearing

1.  Proceedings Confidential  §4.7

2.  Persons Entitled to Attend  §4.8

F.  Conduct of Hearing

1.  Judicial Officer  §4.9

2.  Information to and Inquiries of Parties  §4.10

3.  Reading of Petition  §4.11

4.  Advising of Rights  §4.12

G.  Parent Response  §4.13

1.  Denial of Allegations  §4.14

2.  Other Pleas

a.  Admission or No Contest Plea  §4.15

b.  Submission to Jurisdictional Determination  §4.16

c.  Court Findings on Admission, No Contest, or Submission  §4.17

II.  EVIDENCE AT CONTESTED HEARING  §4.18

A.  Admissibility of Social Worker’s Reports

1.  Social Worker Must Be Available  §4.19

2.  Hearsay in Report  §4.20

B.  Rebuttable Presumptions of Jurisdiction

1.  Based on Nature of Child’s Injuries  §4.21

2.  Based on Sexual Abuse Conviction  §4.22

C.  Privilege Against Self-Incrimination  §4.23

D.  Child’s Testimony

1.  Protecting Child Witness  §4.24

2.  Child’s Statements in Social Worker’s Reports  §4.25

3.  Child Dependency Hearsay Exception

a.  Scope of Exception  §4.26

b.  Due Process Safeguards  §4.27

c.  Factors That May Affect Reliability  §4.28

d.  Factors That May Corroborate Child’s Statement  §4.29

E.  Expert Testimony

1.  Purpose of Expert Testimony  §4.30

2.  Psychotherapist Testimony  §4.31

F.  Ordering Psychological Evaluations  §4.32

G.  Polygraph Admissibility  §4.33

III.  AFTER PRESENTATION OF EVIDENCE

A.  Motion to Dismiss  §4.34

B.  If Allegations Not Proved  §4.35

C.  If Allegations Proved  §4.36

D.  Appeal  §4.37

E.  Effect of Jurisdictional Finding  §4.38

IV.  INTERCOUNTY TRANSFERS

A.  When Applicable  §4.39

B.  Determination of Residence; Child’s Custody  §4.40

C.  Transfer-Out Hearings  §4.41

D.  Transfer-In Hearings  §4.42

E.  Motion to Dismiss  §4.43

F.  Review of Transfers  §4.44

V.  INTERSTATE TRANSFERS

A.  When Child Resides in Another State  §4.45

B.  Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act  §4.46

C.  Interstate Compact on Placement of Children

1.  Purpose of Compact  §4.47

2.  Sending and Receiving Agencies  §4.48

3.  Placements  §4.49

4.  When ICPC Does Not Apply  §4.50

5.  Resources for Questions  §4.51

VI.  FORMS

A.  Form: Waiver of Rights—Juvenile Dependency (Judicial Council Form JV-190)  §4.52

B.  Form: Findings and Orders After Jurisdictional Hearing (Welf & I C §356) (Judicial Council Form JV-412)  §4.53

C.  Form: Juvenile Court Transfer Orders (Judicial Council Form JV-550)  §4.54

VII.  CHECKLISTS

A.  Checklist: Evaluating Legal Sufficiency of Petition  §4.55

B.  Checklist: Findings Required to Be in Order  §4.56

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5

Disposition

Hon. Sherri Sobel

I.  NATURE OF DISPOSITIONAL HEARING  §5.1

II.  CONDUCT OF DISPOSITIONAL HEARING

A.  Motion for De Facto Parent Status

1.  Who May Obtain De Facto Parent Status  §5.2

2.  Role of De Facto Parents  §5.3

3.  Applying for De Facto Parent Status  §5.4

B.  Time Requirements

1.  Deadline to Conclude Dispositional Hearing  §5.5

2.  Continuances  §5.6

C.  Evidence  §5.7

1.  Social Study  §5.8

a.  Contents of Social Study  §5.9

b.  Admissibility of Social Study  §5.10

c.  When Social Study Provided  §5.11

2.  CASA Report  §5.12

3.  Guardianship Report  §5.13

D.  Standard of Proof  §5.14

III.  DEPENDENCY DETERMINATION

A.  No Declaration of Dependency

1.  Dismissal  §5.15

2.  Informal Supervision  §5.16

3.  Voluntary Legal Guardianship  §5.17

B.  Declaration of Dependency  §5.18

1.  Child Kept at Home  §5.19

2.  Educational or Developmental Services Decisions  §5.20

3.  Relinquishment  §5.21

IV.  REMOVAL FROM PARENTAL CUSTODY  §5.22

A.  Requirements for Removal Under Welf & I C §361(c)(1)  §5.23

1.  Substantial Danger  §5.24

2.  No Reasonable Way to Protect Child in Home  §5.25

B.  Requirements for Removal Under Welf & I C §361(c)(2)–(5)  §5.26

1.  Parent Unwilling to Have Custody of Child (Welf & I C §361(c)(2))  §5.27

2.  Child Suffers Severe Emotional Damage (Welf & I C §361(c)(3))  §5.28

3.  Child or Sibling Was Sexually Abused (Welf & I C §361(c)(4))  §5.29

4.  Child Left Without Support (Welf & I C §361(c)(5))  §5.30

C.  Additional Requirement for Removal of Indian Child (Welf & I C §361(c)(6))  §5.31

D.  If Court Orders Removal  §5.32

V.  PLACEMENT

A.  Placement With Previously Noncustodial Parent  §5.33

1.  Juvenile Court Custody Order (Welf & I C §361.2(b)(1))  §5.34

2.  Placement Subject to Jurisdiction Pending Report of Home Visit (Welf & I C §361.2(b)(2))  §5.35

3.  Placement Subject to Supervision (Welf & I C §361.2(b)(3))  §5.36

B.  Placement With Relative  §5.37

1.  Relative’s Criminal History  §5.38

2.  Interstate Compact  §5.39

C.  Placement With Nonrelative Extended Family Member  §5.40

D.  Disqualifying Convictions and Exemptions  §5.41

E.  General Placement and Other Orders  §5.42

VI.  REUNIFICATION  §5.43

A.  Reunification Plan  §5.44

1.  Characteristics of Good Reunification Plan  §5.45

2.  Obtaining Department’s Proposed Plan  §5.46

3.  Parents With Special Needs  §5.47

4.  Alleged Parents  §5.48

B.  Reunification Time Frames  §5.49

C.  Reasons to Deny Reunification Services (Welf & I C §361.5)  §5.50

1.  Parent’s Whereabouts Unknown (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(1))  §5.51

2.  Parent Is Mentally Disabled (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(2))  §5.52

3.  Previous Dependency Adjudication (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(3))  §5.53

4.  Death of Another Child (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(4))  §5.54

5.  Parent’s Conduct (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(5))  §5.55

6.  Severe Sexual Abuse or Physical Injury (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(6))  §5.56

a.  Definitions  §5.57

b.  Facts Used to Deny Services  §5.58

7.  Parent Not Receiving Services for Sibling or Half-Sibling (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(7))  §5.59

8.  Child Conceived by Criminal Offense (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(8))  §5.60

9.  Willful Abandonment (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(9))  §5.61

10.  Removal of Sibling or Half-Sibling (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(10))  §5.62

11.  Parental Rights in Sibling or Half-Sibling Terminated (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(11))  §5.63

12.  Violent Felony (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(12))  §5.64

13.  Chronic Drug Abuse (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(13))  §5.65

a.  Resisted Treatment  §5.66

b.  Failed to Comply With Treatment Program  §5.67

14.  Parent Does Not Want Child (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(14)) and Waives Reunification Services  §5.68

15.  Parent Abducted Child (Welf & I C §361.5(b)(15))  §5.69

16.  Parent is Registered Sex Offender (Welf & I C 361.5(b)(16))  §5.69A

D.  Services for Incarcerated, Institutionalized, Detained or Deported Parent (Welf & I C §361.5(e))  §5.70

1.  Determining Detriment From Reunification Services  §5.71

2.  Incarcerated Parent’s Right to Appear in Court  §5.72

3.  Paternity Findings  §5.73

4.  Drug Treatment  §5.74

E.  Convincing Court to Provide Services  §5.75

VII.  COURT ORDERS

A.  Visitation

1.  Importance of Visitation  §5.76

2.  Visitation Usually Required  §5.77

a.  Court Makes Visitation Decision; Delegation Authority Limited  §5.78

b.  Visitation With Certain Offenders  §5.79

B.  Reunification Services Denied  §5.80

1.  Setting Selection and Implementation Hearing  §5.81

2.  Assessment Order  §5.82

C.  Reunification Services Granted  §5.83

D.  Setting Six-Month Review Hearing  §5.84

E.  Required Findings and Advisements  §5.85

F.  Other Orders  §5.86

VIII.  TRANSFER  §5.87

IX.  FORMS

A.  Form: Custody Order—Juvenile—Final Judgment (Judicial Council Form JV-200)  §5.88

B.  Form: Visitation Order—Juvenile (Judicial Council Form JV-205)  §5.89

C.  Form: Sample Relative/Extended Family Placement Report  §5.90

D.  Form: Waiver of Reunification Services (Juvenile Dependency) (Judicial Council Form JV-195)  §5.91

E.  Form: Caregiver Information Form (Judicial Council Form JV-290)  §5.92

F.  Form: Notice of Hearing on Joinder—Juvenile (Judicial Council Form JV-540)  §5.93

G.  Form: Sample Blueprint for Services Regarding Child  §5.94

H.  Form: Sample Court Order for Initiation of Educational Plan  §5.95

I.  Form: Guardianship (Juvenile)—Consent and Waiver of Rights (Judicial Council Form JV-419)  §5.96

J.  Form: Guardianship (Juvenile)—Child’s Consent and Waiver of Rights (Judicial Council Form JV-419A)  §5.97

K.  Form: Findings and Orders After Dispositional Hearing (Welf & I C §361) (Judicial Council Form JV-415)  §5.98

L.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: Dismissal of Petition With or Without Informal Supervision (Welf & I C §360(b)) (Judicial Council Form JV-416)  §5.99

M.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: In-Home Placement With Formal Supervision (Welf & I C §361) (Judicial Council Form JV-417)  §5.100

N.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: Appointment of Guardian (Welf & I C §360(a)) (Judicial Council Form JV-418)  §5.101

O.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: Removal From Custodial Parent—Placement With Previously Noncustodial Parent (Welf & I C §§361, 361.2) (Judicial Council Form JV-420)  §5.102

P.  Form: Dispositional Attachment: Removal From Custodial Parent—Placement With Nonparent (Welf & I C §§361, 361.2) (Judicial Council Form JV-421)  §5.103

Q.  Form: Visitation Attachment: Parent, Legal Guardian, Indian Custodian, Other Important Person (Judicial Council Form JV-400)  §5.104

R.  Form: Visitation Attachment: Sibling (Judicial Council Form JV-401)  §5.105

S.  Form: Visitation Attachment: Grandparent (Judicial Council Form JV-402)  §5.106

T.  Form: Child’s Information Sheet—Request to Change Court Order (Welf & I C §§353.1, 388) (Judicial Council Form JV-185)  §5.107

U.  Form: Relative Information (Judicial Council Form JV-285)  §5.108

V.  Form: Confidential Information (Judicial Council Form JV-287)  §5.109

X.  CHECKLISTS

A.  Checklist: Possible Social Study Contents  §5.110

B.  Checklist: Judge’s Dispositional Hearing Checklist  §5.111

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6

Postdisposition Proceedings: Six-, Twelve-, Eighteen-, and Twenty-Four-Month Reviews

Hon. Patricia Bresee
Deborah Dentler

I.  POSTDISPOSITION REVIEW IN GENERAL  §6.1

A.  Review When Child Is in Parental Custody

1.  Issues Cognizable at “Family Maintenance” Hearing  §6.2

2.  Limitation on Issues Cognizable at Family Maintenance Hearing: Procedures for Removing Child From Parental Custody  §6.3

B.  Review Hearings When Child Is in Out-of-Home Placement

1.  Supplemental Report  §6.4

2.  Due Process Considerations

a.  Notice and Copy of Supplemental Report  §6.5

b.  Opportunity to Be Heard  §6.6

3.  Issues Court Must Consider at Each Hearing  §6.7

a.  Substantial Risk of Detriment  §6.8

b.  Appropriateness of Placement  §6.9

c.  Reasonable Reunification Services  §6.10

d.  Visitation  §6.11

e.  Consequences of Failure to Provide Adequate Services  §6.12

f.  Concurrent Planning for Reunification and Permanency  §6.13

g.  Sibling Contact  §6.14

h.  Subsequent Criminal History  §6.15

i.  Specific Requirements for Hearing for Child Approaching Majority  §6.15A

II.  SIX-MONTH REVIEW WHEN CHILD IS IN OUT-OF-HOME PLACEMENT

A.  In General  §6.16

B.  Court’s Options When Child Not Returned to Parental Custody

1.  Court Likely to Continue Reunification Services in Most Cases  §6.17

2.  Court May Terminate Reunification Services in Specified Circumstances

a.  When Child Was Under Age 3 at Time of Removal or Is Part of Sibling Group That Includes Such Child  §6.18

b.  When Child Was Abandoned  §6.19

c.  When Child Is Living With Formerly Noncustodial Parent  §6.20

d.  Other Circumstances  §6.21

III.  TWELVE-MONTH REVIEW WHEN CHILD IS IN PLACEMENT

A.  Purpose of 12-Month Hearing  §6.22

B.  Juvenile Court’s Options If Child Is Not Returned

1.  Circumstances in Which Court May Continue Reunification Services  §6.23

2.  Termination of Reunification Services  §6.24

IV.  EIGHTEEN-MONTH PERMANENCY REVIEW WHEN CHILD IS IN PLACEMENT  §6.25

V.  TWENTY-FOUR-MONTH PERMANENCY REVIEW WHEN CHILD IS IN PLACEMENT  §6.25A

VI.  SPECIAL RULES RELATING TO COURT’S ORDER SETTING CASE FOR HEARING UNDER WELF & I C §366.26

A.  In General  §6.26

B.  Notice of Hearing  §6.27

C.  Required Contents of Order Setting Hearing  §6.28

D.  Review of Order Setting Hearing  §6.29

VII.  FORMS

A.  Form: Findings and Orders After In-Home Status Review Hearing (Welf & I C §364) (Judicial Council Form JV-425)  §6.30

B.  Form: Findings and Orders After In-Home Status Review Hearing—Child Placed With Previously Noncustodial Parent (Welf & I C §§364, 366.21) (Judicial Council Form JV-426)  §6.31

C.  Form: Findings and Orders After 6-Month Prepermanency Hearing (Welf & I C §366.21(e)) (Judicial Council Form JV-430)  §6.32

D.  Form: Six-Month Prepermanency Attachment: Child Reunified (Welf & I C §366.21(e)) (Judicial Council Form JV-431)  §6.33

E.  Form: Six-Month Prepermanency Attachment: Reunification Services Continued (Welf & I C §366.21(e)) (Judicial Council Form JV-432)  §6.34

F.  Form: Six-Month Prepermanency Attachment: Reunification Services Terminated (Welf & I C §366.21(e)) (Judicial Council Form JV-433)  §6.35

G.  Form: Findings and Orders After 12-Month Permanency Hearing (Welf & I C §366.21(f)) (Judicial Council Form JV-435)  §6.36

H.  Form: Twelve-Month Permanency Attachment: Child Reunified (Welf & I C §366.21(f)) (Judicial Council Form JV-436)  §6.37

I.  Form: Twelve-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Continued (Welf & I C §366.21(f)) (Judicial Council Form JV-437)  §6.38

J.  Form: Twelve-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Terminated (Welf & I C §366.21(f)) (Judicial Council Form JV-438)  §6.39

K.  Form: Findings and Orders After 18-Month Permanency Hearing (Welf & I C §366.22) (Judicial Council Form JV-440)  §6.40

L.  Form: Eighteen-Month Permanency Attachment: Child Reunified (Welf & I C §366.22) (Judicial Council Form JV-441)  §6.41

M.  Form: Eighteen-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Terminated (Welf & I C §366.22) (Judicial Council Form JV-442)  §6.42

N.  Form: Eighteen-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Continued (Welf & I C §366.22) (Judicial Council Form JV-443)  §6.43

O.  Form: Notice of Review Hearing (Judicial Council Form JV-280)  §6.44

P.  Form: Findings and Orders After 24-Month Permanency Hearing (Judicial Council Form JV-455)  §6.45

Q.  Form: Twenty-Four-Month Permanency Attachment: Child Reunified (Judicial Council Form JV-456)  §6.46

R.  Form: Twenty-Four-Month Permanency Attachment: Reunification Services Terminated (Judicial Council Form JV-457)  §6.47

S.  Form: Attachment: Additional Findings and Orders for Child Approaching Majority—Dependency (Judicial Council Form JV-460)  §6.48

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7

Subsequent, Supplemental, and Modification Petitions

Elaine S. Rosen
Beth L. Steigerwalt

I.  JUVENILE COURT PETITIONS  §7.1

II.  SUBSEQUENT PETITION (Welf & I C §342)

A.  Purpose of Subsequent Petition  §7.2

B.  Petition Contents  §7.3

C.  Setting Hearing and Serving Notice  §7.4

D.  Hearings  §7.5

1.  Jurisdictional Hearing  §7.6

2.  Dispositional Hearing  §7.7

III.  SUPPLEMENTAL PETITION (Welf & I C §387)

A.  Purpose of Supplemental Petition  §7.8

1.  When Supplemental Petition Required  §7.9

2.  Transfer  §7.10

B.  Who May File  §7.11

C.  Petition Contents  §7.12

D.  Setting Hearing  §7.13

E.  Serving Notice  §7.14

F.  Hearings  §7.15

1.  Jurisdictional Hearing  §7.16

2.  Dispositional Hearing  §7.17

a.  Removal From Parental Custody  §7.18

b.  Change in Relative Placement  §7.19

c.  Reunification Services  §7.20

G.  Dismissal of §387 Petition  §7.21

IV.  MODIFICATION PETITION (Welf & I C §388)

A.  Purposes of Modification Petition  §7.22

1.  Account for Changed Circumstances or New Evidence  §7.23

2.  Serve Child’s Best Interests  §7.24

3.  Assert Sibling Relationship  §7.25

4.  Terminate Reunification Services  §7.26

5.  Resume Dependency Jurisdiction  §7.26A

B.  Who May File  §7.27

C.  When to File  §7.28

D.  Court’s Possible Responses  §7.29

E.  Prima Facie Showing for Hearing  §7.30

1.  Changed Circumstances or New Evidence  §7.31

2.  Child’s Best Interests  §7.32

3.  Sibling Relationship  §7.33

4.  Examples

a.  Cases in Which Evidentiary Hearing Was Granted  §7.34

b.  Cases in Which Petition Was Denied Without Evidentiary Hearing  §7.35

F.  Petition Contents  §7.36

1.  Specific Requirements  §7.37

2.  Must Not Be Conclusory  §7.38

G.  Filing, Setting Hearing, and Notice  §7.39

H.  Hearing

1.  Burden of Proof  §7.40

2.  Conduct of Hearing  §7.41

I.  Order on Petition  §7.42

J.  Petition to Resume Dependency Jurisdiction Over Nonminor Dependent  §7.42A

V.  FORMS

A.  Form: Supplemental Petition for More Restrictive Placement (Attachment) (Judicial Council Form JV-150)  §7.43

B.  Form: Request to Change Court Order (Judicial Council Form JV-180)  §7.44

C.  Form: Court Order on Form JV-180, Request to Change Court Order (Judicial Council Form JV-183)  §7.45

D.  Form: Order After Hearing on Form JV-180, Request to Change Court Order (Judicial Council Form JV-184)  §7.46

E.  Form: Confidential Information—Request to Return to Juvenile Court Jurisdiction and Foster Care (Judicial Council Form JV-468)  §7.47

F.  Form: Request to Return to Juvenile Court Jurisdiction and Foster Care (Judicial Council Form JV-466)  §7.48

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8

The §366.26 Hearing: Selection and Implementation of Permanent Plan

Carol B. Barnett

I.  NATURE OF §366.26 HEARING

A.  Purpose  §8.1

B.  Scope  §8.2

C.  Placement Options  §8.3

II.  SETTING §366.26 HEARING

A.  Advisement of Writ Review  §8.4

B.  Setting Hearing for Only One Parent  §8.5

C.  When Hearing May Be Set  §8.6

1.  At Dispositional Hearing  §8.7

2.  At 6-Month Review Hearing  §8.8

3.  At 12-Month Review Hearing  §8.9

4.  At 18-Month Permanency Review Hearing  §8.10

D.  §366.26 Hearing Date  §8.11

E.  Visitation; Important Relationships  §8.12

F.  Social Worker’s Court Report  §8.13

G.  Notice Requirements

1.  Who Must Be Notified  §8.14

2.  Time Limitations  §8.15

3.  What Notice Must Contain and Manner of Service  §8.16

4.  Parent’s Whereabouts or Identity Unknown  §8.17

H.  Continuances  §8.18

I.  Appointment of Counsel  §8.19

J.  Birth Certificates  §8.19A

III.  REVIEW OF ORDER SETTING §366.26 HEARING

A.  Writ and Appeal  §8.20

B.  Petition for Modification of Order Terminating Reunification Services  §8.21

IV.  CONDUCT OF §366.26 HEARING

A.  Who May Be Present  §8.22

B.  Effect of Raising Parentage Issues  §8.23

C.  Termination of Both Parents’ Rights  §8.24

D.  Child’s Wishes and Testimony  §8.25

E.  Caregivers’ and Foster Parents’ Role; Notice and Preference as Prospective Adoptive Parents  §8.26

F.  Determining Adoptability  §8.27

G.  Preference for Termination of Parental Rights  §8.28

H.  Exceptions to Termination  §8.29

1.  Relative as Legal Guardian  §8.30

2.  Parental Relationship Benefits Child (“Benefit” Exception)  §8.31

a.  Case-by-Case Basis  §8.32

b.  Bonding Studies  §8.33

3.  Child Objects to Termination  §8.34

4.  Child in Residential Facility  §8.35

5.  Foster Parent or Indian Custodian Unable to Adopt  §8.36

6.  Substantial Interference With Sibling Relationship  §8.37

7.  Additional Exceptions for Indian Children  §8.38

8.  Standard of Review  §8.38A

I.  Terminating Parental Rights

1.  Necessary Findings  §8.39

2.  Preference for Relative as Legal Guardian  §8.40

3.  When Child Is Difficult to Place for Adoption  §8.41

4.  Referring Child for Adoption  §8.42

5.  Implications of Terminating Parental Rights  §8.43

J.  Legal Guardianship  §8.44

K.  Long-Term Foster Care  §8.45

L.  Tribal Customary Adoption  §8.45A

M.  Required Federal Findings  §8.46

N.  Educational or Developmental Services Rights  §8.47

V.  APPEAL

A.  In General  §8.48

B.  Consideration of Postjudgment Developments  §8.49

VI.  COURT’S CONTINUING JURISDICTION

A.  Postpermanency Review

1.  Jurisdiction  §8.50

2.  Review Hearings  §8.51

3.  Parental Right to Contested Hearing  §8.52

B.  Adoption Hearing  §8.53

C.  Guardianship  §8.54

D.  Postadoption Contact Agreements  §8.55

E.  No Right to Postadoption Visitation With Biological Parents After Termination of Parental Rights  §8.55A

VII.  FORMS

A.  Form: Notice of Hearing on Selection of a Permanent Plan (Judicial Council Form JV-300)  §8.56

B.  Form: Citation for Publication Under Welfare and Institutions Code Section 294 (Judicial Council Form JV-305)  §8.57

C.  Form: Proof of Service Under Section 366.26 of the Welfare and Institutions Code (Judicial Council Form JV-310)  §8.58

D.  Form: Orders Under Welfare and Institutions Code Sections 366.24, 366.26, 727.3, 727.31 (Judicial Council Form JV-320)  §8.59

E.  Form: Termination of Dependency (Juvenile) (Judicial Council Form JV-364)  §8.60

F.  Form: Order Granting Authority to Consent to Medical, Surgical, and Dental Care (Welf & I C §366.27) (Judicial Council Form JV-448)  §8.61

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9

The Indian Child Welfare Act

Mary J. Risling
CEB Update Staff

I.  SCOPE AND PURPOSE OF INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT

A.  Overview  §9.1

B.  Definitions  §9.2

C.  Implementation

1.  Federal Regulations  §9.3

2.  BIA Guidelines  §9.4

3.  California Rules of Court  §9.5

4.  California Welfare & Institutions Code  §9.6

II.  JURISDICTIONAL PROVISIONS OF ACT

A.  Official Acts of Tribe Entitled to Full Faith and Credit  §9.7

B.  Circumstances in Which Tribe Has Exclusive Jurisdiction  §9.8

C.  Circumstances in Which Tribe Has Referral Jurisdiction  §9.9

D.  Tribe Has Concurrent Jurisdiction in PL 280 States  §9.10

III.  NOTICE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT

A.  Overview  §9.11

B.  State Court Has Affirmative Duty to Inquire About Indian Status of Child  §9.12

1.  Determining Whether Child Is or May Be Indian Child  §9.13

2.  Required Procedures for Proceeding Involving Child of Indian Descent  §9.14

3.  ICWA Applies When Child May Be Indian  §9.15

C.  Formal Requirements of Notice

1.  Who Is Entitled to Notice  §9.16

2.  Delivery of Notice  §9.17

3.  Content of Notice  §9.18

D.  Effect of Notice on Pending Proceeding

1.  State Court’s Obligation to Suspend Proceedings  §9.19

2.  BIA’s Duties on Receipt of Notice  §9.20

3.  Implications of Failure to Provide Proper Notice  §9.21

4.  Failure to Submit Copy of Notice and Return Receipt to Court May Require Reversal  §9.22

IV.  PLACEMENT PREFERENCE PROVISIONS OF THE ACT

A.  Overview  §9.23

B.  Order of Preference

1.  Foster Care and Preadoptive Placements  §9.24

2.  Adoptive Placements  §9.25

3.  Tribal Customary Adoption Under Welfare and Institutions Code  §9.25A

C.  Deviations From Placement Preference Order Permitted for Good Cause

1.  Guidelines for Good Cause Determination  §9.26

2.  Judicial Construction of Good Cause Requirement  §9.27

a.  Tension Between ICWA and California Law  §9.28

b.  Decisions From Other States  §9.29

3.  Existing Indian Family Doctrine  §9.30

D.  State’s Duty to Maintain Record of Placement  §9.31

E.  Change of Placement  §9.32

V.  EFFECT OF ICWA ON CONDUCT OF PROCEEDINGS  §9.33

A.  Procedural Guarantees

1.  Tribe’s Right to Intervene  §9.34

2.  Tribe’s Right to Participate If It Does Not Intervene  §9.35

3.  Right to Appointment of Counsel  §9.36

4.  Right to Continuance  §9.37

5.  Right of Access to Court Documents and Records  §9.38

B.  Evidentiary Requirements of ICWA  §9.39

1.  Burden of Proof

a.  Removal or Placement  §9.40

b.  Termination of Parental Rights  §9.41

2.  Required Findings of Fact for Out-of-Home Placement Order

a.  Alignment of ICWA and California Evidentiary Standards  §9.42

b.  Proving Detriment Under ICWA  §9.43

3.  Expert Testimony  §9.44

4.  Active Remedial Efforts  §9.45

5.  Waiver of ICWA’s Evidentiary Requirements  §9.46

VI.  POSTTRIAL RELIEF

A.  Appeal  §9.47

B.  Petition to Invalidate State Court Proceedings

1.  In State Court  §9.48

2.  In Federal Court  §9.49

VII.  FORMS

A.  Form: Sample Request for Enrollment and Proof of Enrollment in Tribe  §9.50

B.  Form: Sample Designation of Indian Custodian  §9.51

C.  Form: Sample Intervention Authorization and Designation of Tribal Representative  §9.52

D.  Form: Sample Designation of Tribal Representative to Participate in State Court Child Custody Proceedings  §9.53

E.  Form: Sample Notice of Designation of Tribal Representative; Order  §9.54

F.  Form: Sample Consent to Placement and Certification  §9.55

G.  Form: Notice of Child Custody Proceeding for Indian Child (Judicial Council Form ICWA-030)  §9.56

H.  Form: Indian Child Inquiry Attachment (Judicial Council Form ICWA-010(A))  §9.57

I.  Form: Information Sheet on Indian Child Inquiry Attachment and Notice of Child Custody Proceeding for Indian Child (Judicial Council Form ICWA-005-INFO)  §9.58

J.  Form: Parental Notification of Indian Status (Judicial Council Form ICWA-020)  §9.59

K.  Form: Attachment to Notice of Child Custody Proceeding for Indian Child (Indian Child Welfare Act) (Judicial Council Form ICWA-030(A))  §9.60

L.  Form: Notice of Designation of Tribal Representative and Notice of Intervention in a Court Proceeding Involving an Indian Child (Judicial Council Form ICWA-040)  §9.61

M.  Form: Notice of Petition and Petition to Transfer Case Involving an Indian Child to Tribal Jurisdiction (Judicial Council Form ICWA-050)  §9.62

N.  Form: Order on Petition to Transfer Case Involving an Indian Child to Tribal Jurisdiction (Judicial Council Form ICWA-060)  §9.63

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10

Appeals and Writs

Bradley A. Bristow

I.  NATURE OF APPELLATE REVIEW IN DEPENDENCY CASES

A.  Available Relief  §10.1

1.  Appealable and Nonappealable Orders  §10.2

2.  Inadequacy of Appellate Remedy; Writ Relief  §10.3

3.  Dependency Appeals Compared With Other Types of Appeals  §10.4

4.  Confidential Nature of Proceedings  §10.5

B.  Advising Parties of Appellate Rights

1.  By Court After Hearing  §10.6

2.  By Appointed Trial Counsel  §10.7

C.  Special Rules

1.  Writ Petitions Under Welf & I C §366.26  §10.8

2.  Writs of Mandate or Prohibition  §10.9

3.  Habeas Corpus  §10.10

4.  “Fast Track” Appeals for Orders Terminating Parental Rights Under Welf & I C §366.26  §10.11

5.  Dependency Appeals in Fourth District  §10.12

II.  REPRESENTING PARENTS AND CHILDREN ON APPEAL

A.  Right to Counsel on Appeal  §10.13

1.  The Appointment Process  §10.14

2.  The Appellate Projects  §10.15

a.  Supervision  §10.16

b.  Fee Recommendations  §10.17

B.  Working With Parents  §10.18

C.  Representing Children at Appellate Level

1.  Duties and Ethical Considerations  §10.19

2.  Interviewing the Child  §10.20

3.  Child’s Preferences Versus Child’s Best Interests  §10.21

4.  Taking Contrary Position to That Advocated at Trial  §10.22

5.  Keeping Abreast of Child’s Situation  §10.23

D.  Working With Trial Counsel  §10.24

III.  WAIVER, DISENTITLEMENT, AND MOOT APPEALS

A.  Failure to Object

1.  Generally  §10.25

2.  Effect of Submissions and Stipulations  §10.26

3.  Objection Required to Preserve Certain Matters for Appeal  §10.27

4.  When Objection Not Required

a.  Sufficiency of Evidence  §10.28

b.  Conflict of Interest  §10.29

c.  No Opportunity to Object  §10.30

d.  Law Unsettled or Unknown at Time of Hearing  §10.31

e.  Question of Law  §10.32

f.  Petition Not Challenged by Demurrer Prior to Jurisdictional Hearing  §10.33

g.  Indian Child Welfare Act Issues  §10.34

h.  Court Has Interest in Resolving Recurring Issue  §10.35

i.  Ineffective Assistance of Counsel  §10.36

B.  Failure to Challenge Order by Appeal or Writ  §10.37

C.  The Disentitlement Doctrine  §10.38

D.  Moot Appeals  §10.39

1.  Existence of Continuing Controversy  §10.40

2.  Issue of Continuing Public Concern  §10.41

3.  Subsequent Acquiescence by Party  §10.42

4.  Expediting the Appeal  §10.43

IV.  APPEAL PROCEDURE

A.  Standing of Children, Parents, De Facto Parents, and Alleged Fathers  §10.44

1.  Parent May Not Raise Issues That Do Not Directly Affect Parental Rights  §10.45

2.  De Facto Parent  §10.46

3.  Other Aggrieved Parties  §10.47

4.  Alleged Father  §10.48

5.  Party Without Standing May Still Benefit From Another’s Appeal  §10.49

B.  Questions Regarding Counsel’s Authority to Appeal  §10.50

C.  Filing Notice of Appeal, Time to Appeal  §10.51

D.  Late Notices of Appeal; Relief From Default  §10.52

E.  Obtaining Stay Pending Appeal Using Writ of Supersedeas  §10.53

F.  Right to Counsel  §10.54

G.  Record on Appeal  §10.55

1.  Augmenting or Correcting the Record  §10.56

a.  Correcting the Record  §10.57

b.  Augmenting Record Versus Requesting Additional Record  §10.58

2.  Agreed or Settled Statement  §10.59

H.  Informing Appellate Court of Events That Occurred Postjudgment  §10.60

I.  Motions in Appellate Court  §10.61

J.  Extensions of Time  §10.62

K.  Briefs

1.  Content of Briefs Generally

a.  Applicable Rules of Court  §10.63

b.  Differences in Format of Briefs for Dependency Appeals

(1)  Confidentiality Issues  §10.64

(2)  Merged Statement of Case and Facts  §10.65

c.  Argument  §10.66

d.  Conclusion  §10.67

2.  Opening Briefs

a.  Time Requirements  §10.68

b.  No Wende Review Under Sade C.  §10.69

3.  Respondent’s Briefs  §10.70

4.  Reply Briefs  §10.71

5.  Supplemental Briefs  §10.72

6.  Briefs for the Child  §10.73

L.  Obtaining Priority in Juvenile Appeals  §10.74

M.  Resolutions by Stipulation  §10.75

N.  Oral Argument

1.  Setting Oral Argument  §10.76

2.  Requesting Oral Argument  §10.77

3.  Presence of Counsel and Parties  §10.78

4.  Content of Argument  §10.79

O.  Standards Used by Reviewing Court  §10.80

P.  Petitions for Rehearing  §10.81

Q.  Petitions for Review  §10.82

R.  Finality of Decision  §10.83

V.  TRADITIONAL EXTRAORDINARY WRITS (PROHIBITION/MANDATE)

A.  Availability of Traditional Extraordinary Relief in Dependency Cases  §10.84

B.  Limitations on Use of Writs  §10.85

C.  Responsibility for Filing Petition  §10.86

D.  Serving and Filing Petition  §10.87

E.  Petition and Related Papers

1.  Contents of Petition  §10.88

2.  Exhibits  §10.89

3.  Stay Requests  §10.90

4.  Preliminary Opposition to Petition  §10.91

F.  Further Procedures in Reviewing Court  §10.92

G.  Disposition and Finality  §10.93

VI.  RULE 8.452 WRITS (FORMERLY RULE 39.1B)

A.  General Considerations

1.  Background  §10.94

2.  Whether Remedy Is by Appeal or by Rule 8.452 Writ  §10.95

3.  When Writ Requirement Will Be Excused  §10.96

4.  Court’s Notice of Writ Requirement to Parties  §10.97

B.  Notice of Intent

1.  When and Where to File  §10.98

2.  Contents of Notice of Intent  §10.99

3.  Remedying Late or Defective Notice of Intent  §10.100

4.  Clerk Transmits Notice of Intent and Prepares Record  §10.101

5.  Obtaining Additional or Corrected Record  §10.102

C.  Filing Petition for Extraordinary Relief

1.  Time Limits for Filing Petition  §10.103

2.  Sending the Petition  §10.104

3.  Contents of Petition  §10.105

4.  Absence of Arguable Issues  §10.106

5.  Stay Requests  §10.107

D.  Response  §10.108

E.  Oral Argument and Decision

1.  Oral Argument  §10.109

2.  Notice of Decision  §10.110

3.  Finality of Decision  §10.111

VII.  HABEAS CORPUS

A.  Use of Habeas Corpus in Dependency Cases; Limitations  §10.112

B.  Appellate Counsel’s Duty to Investigate and Pursue Writ of Habeas Corpus  §10.113

C.  Petitioner’s Investigation of Claim of Ineffective Assistance of Counsel  §10.114

D.  Choice of Court  §10.115

E.  Petition and Related Papers

1.  Contents of Petition  §10.116

2.  Service and Filing of Petition  §10.117

3.  Further Pleadings and Procedures  §10.118

F.  Finality of Decision; Further Review  §10.119

G.  Alternatives to Writ of Habeas Corpus  §10.120

VIII.  OTHER REMEDIES

A.  Use of Petition for Writ of Error Coram Nobis/Vobis; Limits on Use  §10.121

B.  Petition to Modify  §10.122

C.  Motion to Vacate  §10.123

IX.  FORMS

A.  Form: Sample Caption for Pleadings in Juvenile Appeals  §10.124

B.  Form: Notice of Appeal—Juvenile (Judicial Council Form JV-800)  §10.125

C.  Form: Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus  §10.126

D.  Form: Notice of Intent to File Writ Petition and Request for Record to Review Order Setting a Hearing Under Welfare and Institutions Code Section 366.26 (Cal Rules of Court, Rule 8.450) (Judicial Council Form JV-820)  §10.127

E.  Form: Notice of Intent to File Writ Petition and Request for Record to Review Order Designating or Denying Specific Placement of Dependent Child After Termination of Parental Rights (Cal Rules of Court, Rule 8.454) (Judicial Council Form JV-822)  §10.128

F.  Form: Petition for Extraordinary Writ (Cal Rules of Court, Rules 8.452, 8.456) (Judicial Council Form JV-825)  §10.129

G.  Form: Denial of Petition (Cal Rules of Court, Rules 8.452, 8.456) (Judicial Council Form JV-826)  §10.130

H.  Form: Notice of Action (Cal Rules of Court, Rule 8.452) (Judicial Council Form JV-828)  §10.131

X.  CHECKLIST: TOPICS TO DISCUSS WITH TRIAL COUNSEL  §10.132

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11

Representing Parents

Mark R. Murray

I.  ETHICAL ISSUES IN REPRESENTATION OF PARENTS IN DEPENDENCY CASES

A.  Representing the “Unpopular Client”  §11.1

B.  Legal Ethics Versus Personal Morality  §11.2

C.  Overview of Responsibilities  §11.3

II.  RIGHT TO COUNSEL

A.  Source and Waiver of Right  §11.4

B.  Advisement by Court  §11.5

C.  Limitations on Right  §11.6

D.  Right to Effective Assistance of Counsel  §11.7

E.  Compensation of Appointed Counsel  §11.8

F.  Representation in Collateral Proceedings  §11.9

G.  Avoiding Conflicts of Interest  §11.10

H.  Duration of Appointment  §11.11

I.  Representation of Alleged Father  §11.12

J.  Representing Parents of Indian Children  §11.13

III.  CASE EVALUATION

A.  Initial Client Meeting  §11.14

B.  In-Depth Follow-Up Meetings  §11.15

1.  Determining Client Objectives  §11.16

2.  Assessing Client’s Coping Skills  §11.17

3.  Describing Proceedings

a.  Explain Purpose and Procedures  §11.18

b.  Explain Attorney’s Role  §11.19

c.  Advise Client of Risks  §11.20

C.  Discovery and Investigation

1.  Discovery  §11.21

2.  Duty to Investigate  §11.22

3.  Expert Witnesses  §11.23

D.  Evaluate Services Necessary for Client

1.  Consider Making Referrals  §11.24

2.  Visitation Plan  §11.25

3.  Education Plan  §11.26

4.  Medical Planning  §11.27

5.  Guardian Ad Litem  §11.28

6.  Psychological Confidentiality and Release of Information  §11.29

7.  Waiving Time  §11.30

8.  Assessing Social Worker  §11.31

9.  Immunity of Social Worker in Civil Proceedings  §11.32

10.  Assess Opposing Counsel and Assigned Judicial Officer  §11.33

E.  Parentage

1.  Overview  §11.34

2.  Presumed Parents  §11.35

a.  Presumption Based on Voluntary Declaration  §11.36

b.  “Conclusive” Marital Presumption and Its Rebuttal  §11.37

c.  Rebuttable Marital Presumption and Presumption Based on Conduct  §11.38

3.  “Kelsey S.” Fathers  §11.39

4.  Three-Parent Participants  §11.40

5.  Same-Gender Couples and Presumed Mothers in General  §11.41

6.  Summary of Rights for Various Parents; Addressing Parental Status  §11.42

IV.  HEARING-BY-HEARING GUIDE TO DUTIES OF PARENT’S ATTORNEY  §11.43

A.  Mediation  §11.44

B.  Detention Hearing

1.  Parent’s Right to Continuance  §11.45

2.  Necessity for Detention  §11.46

3.  Prima Facie Case  §11.47

a.  Request for Rehearing  §11.48

b.  Objection to Sufficiency of Petition  §11.49

(1)  Objection for Failure to State Cause of Action  §11.50

(2)  Timeliness  §11.51

(3)  Waiver by Failure to Object  §11.52

(4)  Waiver by Admission of Allegations  §11.53

C.  Jurisdictional Phase

1.  Deciding Whether to Contest Jurisdiction  §11.54

2.  Admitting Allegations, Pleading No Contest, or Submitting Determination to Court  §11.55

3.  Contesting Jurisdiction

a.  Evidence of Current Risk  §11.56

b.  Evidence of Parental Fault or Inability to Care for Child  §11.57

c.  Admissibility of Social Study and Contents  §11.58

4.  Other Evidentiary Issues  §11.59

D.  Disposition  §11.60

1.  Dismissal or Informal Supervision  §11.61

2.  Removal From Parental Custody  §11.62

3.  Reunification  §11.63

4.  Placement

a.  With Noncustodial Parent  §11.64

b.  With Relative  §11.65

c.  In County Where Parent Lives  §11.66

5.  Obtaining Appellate Review of Orders at Disposition  §11.67

E.  Review Hearings

1.  Burden Remains on Petitioner to Demonstrate Continued Need for Placement  §11.68

2.  Adequacy of Reunification Services  §11.69

3.  Visitation  §11.70

4.  Obtaining Appellate Review of Court’s Orders at Review Hearings  §11.71

F.  Petition for Modification  §11.72

G.  Selection and Implementation Hearing (§366.26 Hearing)

1.  Adoption Is Preferred Permanent Plan  §11.73

2.  The “Beneficial Relationship” Exception  §11.74

3.  Other Exceptions  §11.75

4.  Child Is Difficult to Adopt  §11.76

H.  Postadoption Contact Agreement  §11.77

I.  Post-§366.26 Hearing Review When Child Is in Long-Term Foster Care  §11.78

V.  FORMS

A.  Form: Client Information  §11.79

B.  Form: Limited Release of Information  §11.80

VI.  CHECKLIST: CLIENT INFORMATION  §11.81

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12

Representing Children

Janet G. Sherwood

I.  CHILD’S RIGHT TO BE REPRESENTED BY COUNSEL

A.  Appointment of Counsel for Child  §12.1

B.  Qualifications of Counsel for Child  §12.2

C.  Compensation of Appointed Counsel  §12.3

II.  ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CHILD’S ATTORNEY

A.  ABA Standards  §12.4

B.  Competing Views of Attorney’s Role: Best Interests Versus Expressed Wishes  §12.5

1.  ABA Standards: Client-Directed Model  §12.6

2.  NACC Revised Standards: Hybrid Model  §12.7

3.  NACC Recommendations  §12.8

C.  Attorney’s Role Under California Law  §12.9

III.  SPECIFIC DUTIES FOR CHILD’S ATTORNEY  §12.10

A.  Investigating the Facts

1.  Importance of Independent Investigation  §12.11

2.  Access to Records  §12.12

3.  Informal Discovery  §12.13

4.  Interviewing Parent and Allowing Interview With Child  §12.14

5.  Investigating Facts Beyond Scope of Proceeding  §12.15

B.  Interviewing Child

1.  Statutory Obligation  §12.16

2.  Initial Interview

a.  Making the Child Comfortable  §12.17

b.  Topics to Discuss  §12.18

3.  Ongoing Contact  §12.19

4.  Confidentiality  §12.20

C.  Making Recommendations to Court  §12.21

D.  Protecting Child’s Right to Confidential Communication With Therapists, Physicians, and Clergy  §12.22

E.  Avoiding Conflicts of Interest  §12.23

IV.  RECURRING ISSUES FOR CHILD’S ATTORNEY  §12.24

A.  Continuances  §12.25

B.  Placement Changes  §12.26

C.  Siblings  §12.27

D.  Parentage  §12.28

E.  Relative Placement  §12.29

F.  Indian Child Welfare Act  §12.30

G.  Special Juvenile Immigrant Status  §12.31

H.  Psychotropic Medication  §12.32

I.  Dismissal of Jurisdiction When Nonminor Is Age 18 or Older  §12.33

J.  Appeals  §12.34

V.  HEARING-BY-HEARING GUIDE TO DUTIES OF CHILD’S ATTORNEY  §12.35

A.  Detention Hearing  §12.36

1.  Questions Court Must Resolve  §12.37

2.  Other Issues Court Must Address  §12.38

B.  Between Detention Hearing and Jurisdictional Hearing  §12.39

C.  Jurisdictional Hearing  §12.40

D.  Dispositional Hearing  §12.41

1.  Removal From Parental Custody  §12.42

2.  The Case Plan  §12.43

3.  Visitation  §12.44

4.  Services Bypass  §12.45

5.  Placement  §12.46

6.  Concurrent Planning  §12.47

7.  Appeal  §12.48

E.  Review Hearings  §12.49

F.  Welf & I C §366.26 Hearing

1.  Adoption Assessment Report  §12.50

2.  Child’s Wishes  §12.51

3.  Clear and Convincing Evidence of Adoptability  §12.52

4.  Exceptions to Termination of Parental Rights  §12.53

5.  Notice of Appeal  §12.54

G.  Post-§366.26 Hearings

1.  Adoption  §12.55

2.  Guardianship  §12.56

3.  Long-Term Foster Care

a.  Return to Parental Custody Remains Possible  §12.57

b.  Counsel Should Monitor Services  §12.58

c.  Counsel Should Make Sure Child Is Not Inappropriately “Graduated” From Dependency to Wardship  §12.59

d.  Issues Involving Older Adolescents  §12.60

e.  Child Retains Right to Appeal  §12.61

VI.  FORMS

A.  Form: Application Regarding Psychotropic Medication (Judicial Council Form JV-220)  §12.62

B.  Form: Prescribing Physician’s Statement—Attachment (Judicial Council Form JV-220(A))  §12.63

C.  Form: Proof of Notice: Application Regarding Psychotropic Medication (Judicial Council Form JV-221)  §12.64

D.  Form: Opposition to Application Regarding Psychotropic Medication (Judicial Council Form JV-222)  §12.65

E.  Form: Order Regarding Application for Psychotropic Medication (Judicial Council Form JV-223)  §12.66

F.  Form: Termination of Juvenile Court Jurisdiction—Nonminor (Judicial Council Form JV-365)  §12.67

G.  Form: Request for Hearing Regarding Child's Education (Judicial Council Form JV-539)  §12.68

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13

Representing De Facto Parents

David A. Donner

I.  INTRODUCTION

A.  Historical Background  §13.1

B.  Prerequisites for Representing De Facto Parents  §13.2

C.  Suggested Approach to Representing De Facto Parents  §13.3

D.  Scope of Chapter  §13.4

II.  DE FACTO PARENT STATUS

A.  “De Facto Parent” Defined  §13.5

B.  Burden of Proof  §13.6

C.  Applying for De Facto Parent Status

1.  Timing of Application  §13.7

2.  Factors for Court to Consider  §13.8

3.  Other Factors Court May Consider  §13.9

4.  Basis for Denial of Application  §13.10

D.  Nature and Extent of De Facto Parent’s Participation

1.  Procedural Rights  §13.11

2.  Limitations on De Facto Parent’s Role  §13.12

3.  Discovery  §13.13

E.  Duration of De Facto Parent Status  §13.14

F.  Alternatives to De Facto Parent Status

1.  Tactical Considerations  §13.15

2.  Petition for Modification Under Welf & I C §388(a)  §13.16

a.  Threshold Requirements  §13.17

b.  Standing  §13.18

c.  Right to Hearing  §13.19

d.  Relief Sought  §13.20

3.  Relative Participation  §13.21

III.  ESTABLISHING ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP

A.  Initial Client Contact  §13.22

B.  Preinterview Preparation  §13.23

C.  Goals for Initial Client Interview

1.  Determine Client Objectives  §13.24

2.  Educate Client  §13.25

3.  Assess Dynamics and Interpersonal Conflicts  §13.26

4.  Present Proposed Representation Agreement  §13.27

5.  Checklist: Client Information  §13.28

IV.  WORKING TO ACHIEVE CLIENT’S OBJECTIVES: APPROACHES AND STRATEGIES

A.  Talk to Other Participants  §13.29

B.  Consult With Associated Professionals  §13.30

C.  Consider Working With or Relying on “Parallel” Party  §13.31

1.  Benefits  §13.32

2.  Potential Hazards  §13.33

D.  Obtain Stipulations if Possible  §13.34

V.  PREPARING THE MOTION  §13.35

VI.  APPEAL  §13.36

VII.  CASES ON DE FACTO PARENTS  §13.37

VIII.  FORMS

A.  Form: De Facto Parent Request (Judicial Council Form JV-295)  §13.38

B.  Form: De Facto Parent Statement (Judicial Council Form JV-296)  §13.39

C.  Form: De Facto Parent Order (Judicial Council Form JV-297)  §13.40

D.  Form: Order Ending De Facto Parent Status (Judicial Council Form JV-298)  §13.41

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14

Representing Petitioner

L. Michael Clark
CEB Update Staff

I.  ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

A.  Petitioner’s Responsibility  §14.1

B.  County Counsel as Petitioner’s Attorney  §14.2

C.  County Counsel as Organization’s Attorney  §14.3

D.  County Counsel’s Ethical Duties  §14.4

1.  Duty of Loyalty

a.  In General  §14.5

b.  Handling Disagreements With Client  §14.6

c.  Handling Disagreements Within Department  §14.7

2.  Duty to Seek Justice?  §14.8

3.  Duty of Communication

a.  In General  §14.9

b.  Keeping Client Informed  §14.10

c.  Working With Social Worker  §14.11

4.  Duty of Confidentiality

a.  In General  §14.12

b.  Organization Holds the Privilege  §14.13

c.  Limits on Sharing Information  §14.14

5.  Duty of Competence  §14.15

a.  Building Blocks of Competence

(1)  Substantive California Dependency Law  §14.16

(2)  Substantive Federal, Interstate, and Related Law  §14.17

(3)  Special Evidentiary and Procedural Rules  §14.18

(4)  Recent Developments  §14.19

(5)  Special Clinical Knowledge  §14.20

(6)  Community Resources  §14.21

b.  Skills Required for Competence

(1)  Trial Advocacy  §14.22

(2)  Appellate Advocacy  §14.23

c.  Roadblocks to Competence: Caseload Standards  §14.24

6.  Duty of Diligence  §14.25

II.  ROLE IN DEPENDENCY PROCEEDINGS

A.  In General  §14.26

1.  Effective Court Representation  §14.27

2.  Other Legal Services  §14.28

B.  Counsel’s Role Before Petition Is Filed  §14.29

C.  Counsel’s Role When Petition Will Be Filed  §14.30

1.  Petition Content  §14.31

2.  Multiple Legal Theories  §14.32

3.  Factual Support for Case Plan  §14.33

D.  Detention (Initial) Hearing  §14.34

1.  Evidence to Support Continued Detention  §14.35

2.  Findings Required for Federal Funding  §14.36

3.  Required Advisements to Parents and Child  §14.37

4.  Additional Detention Issues  §14.38

E.  Detention Hearing Follow-up and Discovery  §14.39

F.  Jurisdictional Hearing

1.  Social Worker’s Court Report (Social Study)  §14.40

2.  Uncontested Hearing  §14.41

a.  Submission on Social Worker’s Court Report  §14.42

b.  Required Advisements  §14.43

3.  Negotiating Petition Language  §14.44

4.  Concurrent Criminal Prosecutions and Privilege Against Self-Incrimination  §14.45

5.  Contested Hearing

a.  Preparation  §14.46

b.  Conduct of Hearing  §14.47

c.  Required Findings  §14.48

G.  Dispositional Hearing  §14.49

1.  Social Worker’s Report  §14.50

a.  Out-of-Home Placement With Reunification Services  §14.51

b.  Out-of-Home Placement With No Reunification Services  §14.52

c.  Other Issues  §14.53

2.  Required Findings and Advisements  §14.54

3.  Compliance With Indian Child Welfare Act  §14.55

4.  Scheduling 6-Month Review Hearing  §14.56

H.  Six-Month Review Hearing

1.  Family Maintenance Review  §14.57

2.  Reunification Review  §14.58

3.  Other Questions at 6-Month Review  §14.59

4.  Notice Requirements  §14.60

5.  Required Findings for Federal Funding  §14.61

6.  If Child Is Not Returned Home  §14.62

I.  Twelve-Month Hearing

1.  Family Maintenance Review  §14.63

2.  Reunification Review  §14.64

J.  Eighteen-Month Review  §14.65

K.  Selection and Implementation Hearing Under Welf & I C §366.26

1.  Notice and Service Requirements  §14.66

a.  When Termination Recommended

(1)  Parent’s Whereabouts Unknown  §14.67

(2)  Parenthood Issues  §14.68

b.  Termination Not Recommended  §14.69

2.  Continuances  §14.70

3.  Adoptability  §14.71

4.  Relative as Legal Guardian  §14.72

5.  Defenses to Termination of Parental Rights  §14.73

a.  Parental Relationship Benefits Child  §14.74

b.  Child Age 12 or Older Objects  §14.75

c.  Child Placed in Residential Facility  §14.76

d.  Custodial Relative or Foster Parent Unwilling or Unable to Adopt  §14.77

e.  Terminating Parental Rights Would Substantially Interfere With Sibling Relationship; Indian Children  §14.78

6.  Issues Irrelevant at §366.26 Hearing  §14.79

7.  Postadoption Contact Agreement  §14.80

8.  Social Worker’s Court Report (Adoptability Assessment)  §14.81

9.  Required Findings  §14.82

10.  Indian Child Welfare Act  §14.83

11.  Petition for Modification Under Welf & I C §388  §14.84

L.  Postpermanency Review Hearings  §14.85

1.  Social Worker’s Court Report: Long-Term Foster Care or Adoption  §14.86

2.  Additional Reunification Services  §14.87

M.  Dismissal of Dependency  §14.88

1.  Relative Guardianship  §14.89

2.  Child Under Age 18  §14.90

3.  Dual Status  §14.91

4.  Nonminor Over Age 18  §14.92

5.  Findings Required for Federal Funding  §14.93

6.  Further Hearings  §14.94

N.  Mediation, Family Conferencing, Drug Court  §14.95

III.  FORMS

A.  Form: Findings and Orders After Postpermanency Hearing—Parental Rights Terminated; Permanent Plan of Adoption (Welf & I C §366.3(f)) (Judicial Council Form JV-445)  §14.96

B.  Form: Findings and Orders After Postpermanency Hearing—Permanent Plan Other Than Adoption (Welf & I C §366.3) (Judicial Council Form JV-446)  §14.97

IV.  CHECKLISTS

A.  Checklist: County Counsel’s Preparation for Detention Hearing  §14.98

B.  Checklist: Advisements Court Must Give at Detention Hearing  §14.99

C.  Checklist: Detention Hearing Requests of Court  §14.100

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